Endocrine System

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  • Endocrine System
    • hormone = a molecule released into the blood that acts as a chemical messenger
      • 2 types
        • steroid  eg. sex hormones
        • protein  and peptide  eg. adrenaline, insulin and glucagon
          • not soluble in phospholipid membrane
    • target  tissue = cells that have receptors in their plasma membrane complementary in shape to specific hormone molecules
    • first messenger = a hormone that acts as a message in the bloodstream eg. adrenaline
      • second messenger = chemical inside the cell released in response to a hormone binding to membrane eg. cAMP
    • Adrenal glands
      • medulla  - manufacture and release adrenaline
        • increases heart rate
        • dilates pupils
        • vasoconstriction to raise blood pressure
      • cortex
        • uses cholesterol to produce steroid hormones
          • mineralocorticoids - control concn of K+ and Na+
          • Glucocorticoids - control metabolism of carbohydratesand proteins


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