Elizabethan Foreign Policy

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  • Created by: James
  • Created on: 19-05-13 16:44
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  • Elizabethan Foreign Policy
    • The Start of her Reign 1559- 1560's
      • France
        • Traditional alliance with Scotland
          • This is strengthened by the marriage between the Dauphin Francis and Mary, Queen of Scots.
            • By 1559, Francis II ascends the throne, making Mary Queen of Scotland and France
              • But by 1560, Francis too had died and Charles IX ascended the throne of France
        • In 1562, Beginning of the French Wars of Religion in which violence breaks out between the Catholics and the Hugenots
          • The Massacre of St Batholomew in 1572 followed a botched attempt at removing the the Protestant leader Coligny who was becoming very close to Charles IX.
        • Catherine de Medici acted as regnet for several of sons in order to oust the Guises from power.
      • Spain
        • Ruled by Philip II, previous husband of Mary I
        • Both England and Spain wished to continue their alliance
          • Philip had put himself forward to marry Elzabeth as even he didnt want to see the Guise faction control France, Scotland and even England through Mary Stuart
        • Continuation of the Hapsburg- Valois War
          • France
            • Traditional alliance with Scotland
              • This is strengthened by the marriage between the Dauphin Francis and Mary, Queen of Scots.
                • By 1559, Francis II ascends the throne, making Mary Queen of Scotland and France
                  • But by 1560, Francis too had died and Charles IX ascended the throne of France
            • In 1562, Beginning of the French Wars of Religion in which violence breaks out between the Catholics and the Hugenots
              • The Massacre of St Batholomew in 1572 followed a botched attempt at removing the the Protestant leader Coligny who was becoming very close to Charles IX.
            • Catherine de Medici acted as regnet for several of sons in order to oust the Guises from power.
          • Temporary peace at the Treaty of Cateau- Cambresis in 1559
        • From 1569, trade between Spain and England dwindels
      • Scotland
        • Ruled by regent, Mary of Guise, for her daughter Mary while she was in France
        • The rising of the Lords of Congregation successfully established Protestantism in Scotland.
          • Elizabeth was wary of becoming involved should the Scottish call for French aid. Instead she eventually decided to place garrisons along the border.
      • Ireland
        • Ruled by various clans with different chieftans
        • Legacy of unsuccessful attempts at imposing English rule
        • Springboard for Catholic invasion
        • Elizabeth believed she could resolve all problems in Ireland quickly and cheaply
      • Netherlands
        • Ruled by Philip II after his father abdicates as Holy Roman Emperor
          • Spain
            • Ruled by Philip II, previous husband of Mary I
            • Both England and Spain wished to continue their alliance
              • Philip had put himself forward to marry Elzabeth as even he didnt want to see the Guise faction control France, Scotland and even England through Mary Stuart
            • Continuation of the Hapsburg- Valois War
              • Temporary peace at the Treaty of Cateau- Cambresis in 1559
            • From 1569, trade between Spain and England dwindels
        • Relationships frayed due to trade embargo from 1563-1565
    • The Middle of her Reign 1570's- 1580's
      • France
        • Marriage negotiations with Anjou
          • In order to cerment a Anglo-French alliance
          • Supported by Cecil and Earl of Sussex (Thomas Radcliffe)
          • Dudley, Earl of Leicester , opposed the marriage
          • Elizabeth had no real intention of marrying Anjou but it was as good as a treaty of friendship
      • Spain
        • Spanish Armada 1588
          • With the English aiding the Dutch rebels in the Netherlands, Philip launched his armada in 1588
          • Under the Duke of Medina Sidonia, the Spanish Armada set sail for England, however the whole thing was a failure and they returned to Spain via Scotland and the west coast of Ireland
        • The War in the Netherlands 1585
          • After Philip signed the Treaty of Joinville, Elizabeth soon signed the Treaty of Nonsuch with the Netherlands, promising support, under Leicester
          • After Leicester was recalled from the Netherlands, Stanley replaced him, but being a Catholic he freely relinquished several towns
          • Following Henry IV marching on Paris, Philip calls Parma from the Netherlands to help in France. This allows Maurice of Nassau to win strategic battles.
          • The war between France and Spain ends in 1598, but the war between Spain and England does not end until 1604
      • Ireland
        • The Fitzgerald rebellions in Ireland are caused by clan fighting and the aggressive polices of Sidney.
        • 1572/76- Colonisation in Ulster failed due to Elizabeth being shrewd with ressources being sent to the Earl of Essex. In addition, she had given lands belonging to a chieftan in Ireland and the private enterprises whose goal was to colonise lacked the military strength to withstand such an assalut.
        • 1568- Men such as Carew launched several aggressive claims in hopes of colonising Munster with many clashes occuring between the "old" and "new" English.
      • Scotland
        • Much to the later dismay of Elizabeth after pressure from Parliament, Mary, Queen of Scots is execute. Elizabeth soon writes to James, declaring her innocence, but he seems unphased and relation are not frayed.
      • Netherlands
        • The War in the Netherlands 1585
          • After Philip signed the Treaty of Joinville, Elizabeth soon signed the Treaty of Nonsuch with the Netherlands, promising support, under Leicester
          • After Leicester was recalled from the Netherlands, Stanley replaced him, but being a Catholic he freely relinquished several towns
          • Following Henry IV marching on Paris, Philip calls Parma from the Netherlands to help in France. This allows Maurice of Nassau to win strategic battles.
          • The war between France and Spain ends in 1598, but the war between Spain and England does not end until 1604
    • The End of her Reign 1590's- 1600's
      • France
        • Issue of Succession
          • After the death of Francis of Anjou in 1584, Protestant Henry of Navarre became heir apparent to the throne much to the displeasure of the French Catholics especially the Guise Faction.
            • This issue of Succession gave rise to the Catholic League who would fight against Henry becoming king. Philip offered financial support to the League under the Treaty of Joinville.
              • Spain
                • Spain launched a futher two (failed) armadas in 1596 and 1599 in hopes of aideing Tyrone's rebellion
                  • Despite recieving an Englsih education, backed by Elizabeth and givent the tiltle of Earl of Tyrone, Huhg O'Neil wished for more control and soon began calling for foreign help especially from Spain, who did help with papl blessings.
                • England became increasing worried once Spain and France had reconciled, that they would be the common Protestant enemy. England and Spain did not make peace until 1604.
          • Elizabeth wanted Henry to deal with the Spanish presence in Normandy should they over run Britaany there is the risk they'll join with the Spanish still in the Netherlands.
          • Instead Henry converts to Catholicism in 1593, rendering the Catholic League irrelevant. This worked in Elizabeth's favor since Henry would unite France by focusing on a common foreign enemy: Spain.
        • Franco- Spanish War 1595- 1598
          • Elizabeth continued to help Henry, with English troops capturing the Spanish fortified Crozon in 1595.
          • The war ends when Philip and Henry sign the Treaty of Vervins; England does not make their own peace with Spain until 1604
        • In France Elizabeth managed to achieve her aim of national security, highlighted by the defeat of the Guise faction.
      • Spain
        • Spain launched a futher two (failed) armadas in 1596 and 1599 in hopes of aideing Tyrone's rebellion
          • Despite recieving an Englsih education, backed by Elizabeth and givent the tiltle of Earl of Tyrone, Huhg O'Neil wished for more control and soon began calling for foreign help especially from Spain, who did help with papl blessings.
        • England became increasing worried once Spain and France had reconciled, that they would be the common Protestant enemy. England and Spain did not make peace until 1604.
      • Ireland
        • The Tyrone Rebellion 1594- 1603
          • After several battles and military defeats, Essex was sent to put down the rebellion, but instead parlleled with Hugh O'Neil. It wasn't until Essex was rexalled and Lord Mountjoy sent that the rebellion was finally crushed.
          • Tyrone eventually surrened in 1603 after Elizabeth's death
      • Netherlands
        • The Dutch rebels had managed to achieve a semi-autonomous state with the decline of Spanish power. In 1587, although offered, Elizabeth turns down the crown of the Netherlands.
      • Scotland
        • After the death of ary, the Scottish Catholic threat had somewhat come to an end and England and Scotland were are on good terms. After the death of Elizabeth, it was James who became King of England.
    • Goals and Aims of Foreign Policy
      • The government should prevent the country from being invaded or controlled by a foreign power
      • Her main aim was national security
      • No precise aims due to being such an inferior power
      • Relations with foreign power should be to further the interests of England
      • Elizabeth strove for National security rather than fighting for international Protestantism
    • Treaties
      • Cateau- Cambresis 1559- a peace treaty between Spain and France, ending the Hapsburg Valois War. England lens aid in hopes of regaining Calais.
      • Edinburgh 1560- A treaty signed by England and Scotland to end hostility and the French to withdraw from Scotland
      • Hampton Court 1562- Signed between England and the Hugenots, promising military and financial aid
      • Toreys 1564- Mutual defense treaty between France and England
      • Blois 1572- mutual defence treaty between France and England
      • Perpetual Edict 1577- After the Spanish Fury, the Spanish agreed to leave the provinces, or Elizabeth would lend the rebels £100,000
      • Joinville 1584- Phillip promises support to the Catholic League
      • Nonsuch 1585- Elizabeth promises 7000 troops to the Netherlands
      • Berwick 1586- Mutual defense treaty between England and Scotland
      • Greenwich 1596- Elizabeth promises 4000 (later 2000) troops to the protestant leader Henry Turenne
      • Vervins 1598- Ends Spanish involvement in the French Wars of Religion

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