English Presentation

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  • Elements of Conversation
    • Opening & Closing a conversation
      • Opening
        • Exchange of greetings         "Hello", "hiya"
        • Self-identification          "I'm Victoria"
        • Politeness formulas            "Excuse me"
      • Closing
        • Conclusion or summing up     "So thats agreed?"
        • Phatic expressions        "Nice talking to you"
        • Exchange of farewells          "Goodbye"
    • Turn Taking
      • Judging when it is appopriate to contribute to a conversation
      • If a conversation lacks this it would be full of interruptions, overlapping and awkward silences
      • Includes verbal and non-verbal cues; signal the end of utterance or someone else desires to speak.
        • Direct invitations; asked a question or name is mentioned        "What you you think?"
        • When speaker reaches end of an utterance their voive begins to fall and they look directly at person being addressed
    • Adjaceny Pairs
      • Building blocks of conversation; two part exchange
      • Question / Answer
      • Greeting / Greeting
      • Summons / Answer
      • Statement / Agreement
      • Apology / Acceptance
      • Invitation / Acceptance or refusal
    • Topics
      • Gives coherence and structure
      • Utterances will be relevant to current topic or attempt to stimulate new ones
        • Utterances that deviate from the relevant topic flouts the Grice's Maxim of relevance
      • A topic marker estalishes the topic at the beginning of a conversation
        • "So, how was your lesson?"
      • Changes of topic = topic shift
      • Return to previous topic = topic loop
      • Controlling topics = agenda setting
    • Repairs
      • Resolves a problem that has arisen in conversation
      • For example, a speaker correcting themselves
        • "I paid twenty no fifteen pounds for it"
      • For example, one speaker correcting another
        • "I paid twenty pounds for- No you didn't it was fifteen"
    • Feedback
      • Indicates you are listening to the speaker
        • Failure to give feedback may indicate boredom or distraction
          • Grice's Maxim of Quantity; not saying enough
      • Also known as 'back-channeling'
      • Verbal responses; "yeah", "really?"
      • Oral signs; "mmm", "uh huh", laughing
      • Non-verbal responses; nods and smiles
  • Includes verbal and non-verbal cues; signal the end of utterance or someone else desires to speak.
    • Direct invitations; asked a question or name is mentioned        "What you you think?"
    • When speaker reaches end of an utterance their voive begins to fall and they look directly at person being addressed

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