Elements and Compounds

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  • Elements and Compounds
    • Elements
      • Can be divided into metals and non-metals
      • Arranged in vertical groups in the periodic table numbered 0 to 7. Some elements do not belong in a group
      • The group number of an element tells you the number of electrons in the outermost shell of each atom of the element
    • Ions
      • Formed when an atom loses or gains electrons
    • Ionic Compounds
      • Compounds containing oppositely charged ions which are strongly attracted to each other by electrostatic attraction
      • Made up of atoms of metals and non metals
    • Covalent Substances
      • These contain atoms bonded to each other by covalent bonds
      • Made up of atoms of non metals
    • Writing Formulae
      • Metals
        • Always written just using the chemical symbol for an atom of the element
      • Common Molecules
        • Diatomic Molecules
          • Hydrogen: H2
          • Nitrogen: N2
          • Chlorine: Cl2
          • Oxygen: O2
        • Methane: CH4
        • Carbon Dioxide: CO2
        • Ammonia: NH3
      • Acids
        • Hydrochloric Acid: HCl
        • Sulphuric Acid: H2SO4
        • Nitric Acid: HNO3
      • Ionic Compounds
        • Formula shows the ratio of the numbers of ions in the compound
        • Elements other than non metals change their name to end with -ide when they are ions
        • Positive ions
          • Group 1: Li+, Na+, K+
          • Group 2: Mg2+, Ca2+
          • Aluminium: Al3+
        • Negative Ions
          • Group 6: O2- (Oxide), S2- (Sulphide)
          • Group 5: N3- (Nitride)
          • Group 7: F- (Fluoride), Cl-, Br-, I-
      • Compound Ions
        • Carbonate: CO3 2-
        • Hydroxide: OH-
        • Sulphate: SO4 2-
        • Nitrate: NO3-
    • State Symbols
      • Solid (S)
      • Aqueous Solution (Aq)
      • Liquid (l)
      • Gas (g)

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