Elements from the Sea

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  • Elements from the Sea
    • transport, uses and benefits of chlorine
    • iodine-thiosulfate titration
      • transport, uses and benefits of chlorine
    • atom economy
    • oxidation and reduction
      • electrolysis
        • practical electrolysis techniques:- reduction occurs at the cathode- oxidation occurs at the anode
        • diagram
        • oxidation states
    • Le Chatelier's Principlethe system opposes change- increase reactants or decrease products = equilibrium shifts to the products- decrease reactants or increase products = equilibrium shifts to the reactants
      • chemical equilibria
        • dynamic equilibrium:the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction - concentrations do not change
        • the composition of an equilibrium mixture will always adjust to keep Kc constant
          • equilibrium constant, Kc
    • hydrogen halides
      • reactions with sulfuric acid:- HF and HCl = no reaction- HBr = sulfur dioxide produced- HI = hydrogen sulfide produced
      • thermal stability decreases down group 7
      • reaction with ammonia to form ammonium halides
      • preparation - HCL and HF - sodium halide and sulfuric acid- HBr and HI - sodium halide and phosphoric acid
      • acidity:- HCl, HBr, HI strongly acidic- HF weakly acidic
      • reaction of halides with silver nitrate to form silver halides
    • the p-block - group 7
      • halogens dissolved in water
      • displacement reactions


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