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  • Elements
    • Elements consist of atoms with the same atomic number.
    • Atoms of each element can be represented by a one or two letter symbol.
    • Isotopes
      • Isotopes are different forms of the same element, which have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons.
      • Isotopes have the same atomic number but a different mass number.
      • Relative atomic mass is used instead of mass number.
        • relative atomic mass= sum of(isotope abundance x isotope mass number) / sum of abundances of all the isotopes.
    • Group 1 Elements
      • Group 1 elements are known as the alkali metals and they are Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium, Caesium and Francium.
      • They are very reactive because they only have 1 electron in their outer shell so they don't need much energy to lose it. They are all also soft and have low density.
      • As you go down group 1: The reactivity is increased. They have lower melting and boiling points and the higher the relative atomic mass.
    • Group 7 Elements
      • Known as Halogens. They include Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine and Iodine.
      • As you go down group 7: They become less reactive, Have higher melting and boiling points and Higher relative atomic masses.
      • More reactive halogens will displace less reactive ones.
    • Group 0 Elements
      • Called the noble gases they include Helium, Neon and Argon.
      • They have 8 electrons in their outer shell giving them a full outer shell.
      • The Boiling points increase as you go down the group and the relative atomic mass increases.


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