Electrolysis

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  • Electrolysis
    • Ions
      • Cation (+)
      • Anion (-)
    • Electrodes
      • Cathode (-)
      • Anode (+)
    • Experiment
      • At the cathode
        • hydrogen (from H + in water) is produced UNLESS the + ions in the ionic compound are from a metal less reactive than hydrogen
        • if the metal is less reactive, it will be produced instead
      • At the anode
        • oxygen (from OHin water) will be produced UNLESS the ionic compound contains halide ions (Cl- , Br- , I - )
        • if there are halide ions, the halogen will be produced instead (e.g. Cl2 )
    • Electrolysis of...
      • Sodium chloride  solution
        • H + ions go to cathode, H2 (g) is produced (Na is more reactive than hydrogen)
        • Clions go to anode, Cl2 (g) is produced (Cl- are halide ions)
      • Copper (II) sulfate solution
        • Cu+ ions go to cathode, Cu (s) is produced (Cu is less reactive than hydrogen)
        • OHions go to anode, O2 (g) is produced (SO4 2- ions are not halide ions)
      • Water acidified with sulfuric acid
        • H + to cathode, H2 (g) is produced (these are the other ions present in sulfuric acid H2SO4 )
        • OHto anode, O2 (g) is produced (SO4 2- ions are not halide ions)
    • OILRIG
      • Oxidation
        • Loss of Electrons
      • Reduction
        • Gain of Electrons
    • Half equations
      • At the anode...
        • Untitled
      • At the cathode...
        • X^+ + e^- -> X

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