P4 - Static electricity

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  • Created by: Naomi
  • Created on: 21-01-13 16:30
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  • Static electricity
    • Electrons
      • In a stable, neutral atomthere are the same amount of positive and negative charges
      • All electrostatic effects are due to the movement of electrons
      • Like charges repel, unlike charges attract
      • An object has:
        • A negative charge due to an excess of electrons
          • Atoms or molecules that have been charged are called ions
            • A positive charge due to a lack of electrons
        • A positive charge due to a lack of electrons
      • When an object is rubbed electrons are transferred from one object to the other
    • Dangers of static electricity
      • If a large charge builds up on an object and it is allowed to 'flow' it can be dangerous
      • Synthetic clothing being rubbed can build up a charge and give an electrostatic shock to the person if they touch a conductor
      • Where there are explosive gases or vapours there will be provisions made to not allow a static charge to build or a way for it to safely escape
        • Earth wires
        • Bonding cables
        • Staff in operating theatres will wear rubber-soled shoes
      • Static electricity can also be a nuisance
        • Dust gets attracted to TV screens
        • Clothing can cling
        • Static electricity
          • Electrons
            • In a stable, neutral atomthere are the same amount of positive and negative charges
            • All electrostatic effects are due to the movement of electrons
            • Like charges repel, unlike charges attract
            • An object has:
              • A negative charge due to an excess of electrons
                • Atoms or molecules that have been charged are called ions
              • When an object is rubbed electrons are transferred from one object to the other
            • Dangers of static electricity
              • If a large charge builds up on an object and it is allowed to 'flow' it can be dangerous
              • Synthetic clothing being rubbed can build up a charge and give an electrostatic shock to the person if they touch a conductor
              • Where there are explosive gases or vapours there will be provisions made to not allow a static charge to build or a way for it to safely escape
                • Earth wires
                • Bonding cables
                • Staff in operating theatres will wear rubber-soled shoes
              • Static electricity can also be a nuisance
                • Dust gets attracted to TV screens
                • Clothing can cling
            • Dust precipitators
              • A dust precipitator removes harmful particles from chimneys of factories and power stations
              • A metal grid is placed in the chimney and given a large charge
                • The collecting plates are given the opposite charge to the grid
                  • The dust goes through the grid and gains the same charge as the grid
                    • Opposite charges attract, so the dust is attracted to the plate
            • Paint sprayers
              • The paint is charged
                • The object being painted is given the opposite charge
                  • Opposite charges attract, so the paint is attracted to the object and sticks to it
            • Defibrillators
              • Defibrillation is a procedure to restore a regular heart rhythm by delivering an electric shock to the heart
              • Two paddles are charged from a high voltage supply and placed firmly on the patient's chest
                • An electric charge is passed through the patient to make their heart contract
      • Dust precipitators
        • A dust precipitator removes harmful particles from chimneys of factories and power stations
        • A metal grid is placed in the chimney and given a large charge
          • The collecting plates are given the opposite charge to the grid
            • The dust goes through the grid and gains the same charge as the grid
              • Opposite charges attract, so the dust is attracted to the plate
      • Paint sprayers
        • The paint is charged
          • The object being painted is given the opposite charge
            • Opposite charges attract, so the paint is attracted to the object and sticks to it
      • Defibrillators
        • Defibrillation is a procedure to restore a regular heart rhythm by delivering an electric shock to the heart
        • Two paddles are charged from a high voltage supply and placed firmly on the patient's chest
          • An electric charge is passed through the patient to make their heart contract

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