Electoral Systems

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  • Electoral Systems
    • Majoritarian
      • Secure absolute majority (50% +1 of vote)
      • Usually single-member constituencies
      • e.g. Alternative Vote System
      • Non-proportional
    • Plurality
      • Plurality of votes needed to win (i.e. one more than closest rival)
      • Single-member constituencies
      • Non-proportional
      • Large parties - more seats than their vote merits
      • Small parties whose support is thinly spread - underrepresented
      • e.g. FPTP
    • Proportional
      • Produce a close fit between votes and seats
        • by using an electoral formula
      • District Magnitude - number of legislative seats per constituency = crucial factor
        • Larger constituency, more proportional result
      • Multi-member constituencies
      • e.g. Regional List System, Single Transferable Vote
    • Mixed or Hybrid
      • A proportion of representatives are elected under a majoritarian /plurality system in single-member constituencies
        • The remainder elected by proportional representation in multi-member constituencies
          • These list seats produce additional members that are allocated to parties on corrective lines
      • e.g. Additional Member System
    • Majoritarian/ Plurality System - produce clear winner and strong government (mostly single-party governments with working parliamentary majorities) an maintain link between MPs an geographical constituencies.
      • Proportional representation - Provides maximum choice for voters and reflect accurately the diversity of opinion - tend to produce coalition governments as no single party wins a majority of seats

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