effects of culture

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  • Created by: hmarks62
  • Created on: 12-02-15 14:46
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  • Effects of culture
    • Explicit and Implicit relationship rules
      • Explicit rules include formal marriage, implicit includes not dating your friends ex. Rules are important across all cultures, although the rules themselves do change
      • Argyle et al (1986): Across Uk, Italy, Hong Kong and Japan, different rules were relevant to each culture, but they all acknowledged the importance of rules themselves
    • Individual Choice Vs Group Benefit
      • Western cultures emphasise importance of choice, happiness and pleasure. non western focus on group being most important and interdependence
      • Theories of relationships are tailored to cultural attitudes of individualist cultures, but collectivism leads to formation of relationships that aid the whole family, leading to arranged  marriages
    • Social norm of reciprocity
      • Social norms guide what is acceptable in relationships  The norm of reciprocity plays a key part in personal relationships e.g. benefits received should match benefits given
      • Ting-Toomey (1986): Reciprocity in individualist cultures is voluntary, but in collectivist it is obligatory. Failure to return a favour is a failure of moral duty.
    • Mobility and choice
      • In western society due to geographical social mobility we interact voluntarily with lots of people on a daily basis - there is a lot of partner/friend choice
      • Non-Western cultures  have fewer large urban centres and less mobility leading  to less choice. Strangers  are rare and relationships frequently tied to factors such as family or economic resources
    • Value of continuity and permanent relationships
      • Non-western cultures have much more of a problem with change.
      • Hsu (1953) The chinese regard heritage and ancestry as important and change is suspicious  They value continuity so are dominated by permanent relationships . In the Us, change is seen as inevitable  therefore there is more temporary  relationships
    • Relationships can be fairly compared because love seemingly is universla concept. Jankowiak & Fischer (1992): Evidence of romantic love in 90% 166 non western tribes. Buss's research shows great consistency across 33 countries and over 10,000 P's. It suggested that love is universal as its evolved to promote survivial and reproduction


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