Effects of the Crimean War 1853-1856

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  • Effects of the Crimean War 1853-1856
    • International
      • March 1856: Treaty of Paris
        • Other European rulers given the duty to protect Christians in the Ottoman Empire
        • Russia gave up its claim to act as the protector of the principalities
        • Russia lost much of Bessarabia to Moldovia
        • Russian ships banned from the Black Sea
        • Highlighted Russia's weak position
        • Revealed Europe's fear of the Great Russian Bear
    • Social
      • Between 650,000 and 750,000 Russians died
        • Mainly from disease
      • Led to the emancipation of the serfs
        • HOWEVER: May have happened regardless
          • Nicholas I considered emancipation in 1825
      • Reforms in education and the Church
        • HOWEVER: Limited link with the Crimean War
      • Expansion of the railways
        • Increased stability
        • 1861-1878: 20,000 km of track built
    • Political
      • Zemstva created
        • HOWEVER: Had little long term influence
        • Members of local government now needed to be elected
          • Dilution of autocracy
          • HOWEVER: Property qualifications were attached to voting rights
      • Emancipation resulted in a reduced political role for nobles
    • Military
      • Reasons for reform
        • Poor accomodation
          • Disease
        • Low morale
        • Ill-equipped
        • Harsh discipline
        • Peasant soldiers
      • Created a professional army in line with Western rivals
        • Reliable to maintain civil and international order
        • Demonstrated during the Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878)
      • Rigorous instruction provided for officers
      • Training modernised
      • Army service reduced to 15 years

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