Effects of Exercise on the systems

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  • Effects of Exercise on..
    • The Muscular System
      • Long Term Effects
        • Increased strength of muscles
        • Increased muscle hypertrophy
        • Increased myoglobin stores
        • The tendons and ligaments also become stronger
      • Short Term Effects
        • Increase in muscle temperature
        • Increased demand for oxygen
        • Increased production of carbon dioxide
        • Increased lactic acid production
        • Muscle Fatigue
    • The Cardiovascular System
      • Short Term Effects
        • Increase in heart rate
        • Increase in stroke volume
        • Increase in systolic blood pressure
        • Increased oxygen delivery and increased removal of carbon dioxide
        • Increased rate of blood flow and therefore increased oxygen delivery
      • Long Term Effects
        • Increase in size and strength of the heart (cardiac hypertrophy)
        • Increase in stroke volume
        • Increased maximum cardiac output during exercise
        • Good for fitness as the heart can contract more forcefully
        • faster return to resting heart rate
        • Lower resting heart rate
        • Increased capillarisation
        • Increased number of red blood cells
      • Key Terms
        • Heart rate = the number if times the heart beats per minute
        • Stroke volume = the amount of blood leaving the heart each beat
        • Systolic Blood Pressure = the pressure when blood is being pumped out of the heart
    • The Respiratory System
      • Short Term Effects
        • Increase in breathing rate
        • Increase in depth of breathing
        • Increase in removal of carbon dioxide
        • increase in the amount of oxygen taken into the lungs in each breath
      • Long Term Effects
        • Increased number of alveoli
        • Increased strength of intercostal muscles
        • Increased strength of the diaphragm
        • Increased lung volume
      • Key Terms
        • Total lung capacity = the total volume of air in your lungs after your biggest breathe in
        • Tidal Volume = during normal breathing, the total amount breathed in and out in one cycle
        • Vital capacity = the maximum you can forcibly breathe in and out
    • The Skeletal System
      • Short Term Effects
        • N/A
      • Long Term Effects
        • Increased bone density/ stronger bones
        • Stronger ligaments and tendons


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