Interventions overview

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  • Effectiveness of Interventions
    • Biological
      • agonist
        • i.e Methadone used to help treat heroin addicts- longer lasting
          • Stablise beahviour
        • However usually needs a combination of therapies (McClellan et al)
        • Side effects which can cause relapse
        • Can become dependent on the new drug= cause another addiction
        • Nicotine replace-ment only work effectively when combined (Hughes)
          • Provide +ive reinforce  -ment (quick relief)
      • antagonist
        • Cannot be abused and do not cause of feeling of being 'high'
        • Helps to stabilize health & social functioning & reduce exposure to risk behaviours.
        • O'Brien et al found using naltrexone on alcoholics improved likely-hood of success & decrease alcohol cravings.
        • Kim et al found 75% of gamblers taking N had improved symptoms.
          • Evaluation of study
        • However side effects can occur.
      • Relapse when pharma-therapy is stopped
      • Determinstic
    • Public Health
      • Project TND
        • Bachman et al- campagin highly effective in changing attitudes and led to reduced cannabis usage.
        • Sussman- peer led programmesmore successful
      • SENATR campaign
        • Palmgreen et al- messages were effective
      • Fear Campaign
        • Sutton & Hallett-fear arousing warnings-effective
        • Witte & Allen-fear appeals can motivate change.
          • Howver can cause increase in addictive beh.
        • Jannis-too much fear cause people too ignore it.
        • Seth &  Rogers- self efficacy important.
      • Worksite-Live for life
        • fielding (90) & Shipley et al (88)
        • target people who may not seek help otherwise.
  • Public Health
    • Project TND
      • Bachman et al- campagin highly effective in changing attitudes and led to reduced cannabis usage.
      • Sussman- peer led programmesmore successful
    • SENATR campaign
      • Palmgreen et al- messages were effective
    • Fear Campaign
      • Sutton & Hallett-fear arousing warnings-effective
      • Witte & Allen-fear appeals can motivate change.
        • Howver can cause increase in addictive beh.
      • Jannis-too much fear cause people too ignore it.
      • Seth &  Rogers- self efficacy important.
    • Worksite-Live for life
      • fielding (90) & Shipley et al (88)
      • target people who may not seek help otherwise.

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