Mary I

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  • Created on: 15-05-16 13:22
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  • Roman Catholicism
    • Mary I
      • Gardiner's Policies
        • Opposition to the proposed marriage and the consequent rebellion meant further religious legislation was postponed until Spring 1554
          • Gardiner tried to quicken the pace at which Protestantism was removed
            • He tried to persuade Parliament to pass a bill to reintroduce the heresy laws
              • He was successfully opposed by Paget, who feared that it would caused further disorder
                • Gardiner turned his attention to the protestant clergy
                  • The bishops of Gloucester, Hereford, Lincoln and Rochester and the Archbishop of York were deprived of the bishoprics and replaced by committed Catholics
                    • In March 1554, the bishops were instructed to enforce all religious legislation of the last year of Henry's reign apart from returning to the old order of the Church in the Latin tongue
                      • These injunctions demanded that all married clergy should give up their wives and family, or los their parishes
                        • The authorities largely complied with these instructions, around 800 clergy were deprived
                          • Some fled abroad, the majority found employment elsewhere in the country
      • From Anglo Catholicism to Roman Catholicism
        • Cardinal pole arrived in England in Nov 1445. This was the next decisive stage in the restoration of RC
          • Parliament met in the same month and passed the second statute of repeal. This act ended the royal supremacy and returned England to papal authority. It came at a price
            • Mary had to come to a compromise with the landowners. Provision was made for all those who had bough Church land since 1536. This showed Mary had to recognise the authority of Parliament over matters of religion
              • She had to forget her plans for a full scale restoration of the monasteries. She had to be content with returning to the CHurch the monastic lands wtill held by the Crown, worth £60,000 a year
      • Attempts to consolidate the Marian Church
        • While Pole actively tried to eradicate Protestantism his first priority was to restore stability after 20 years of religious termoil
          • It was widely regarded, in view of his lack of administrative experience and ability, that such a formal and legalisitc approach was a mistake
            • Ecclesiastical revenues had been so stripped that there were insufficient resources available to reorganise the Marian Church effectively
              • A great part of Pole's three years in office was trying to restore the CofE's financial position - a hopeless task
                • Pole's attempt to reorganise and reconcile the SofE to Rome was hindered by the death of Pope Julius III
                  • The new Pope, Paul IV, disliked Pole and hated the Spanish Habsburgs. He stripped Pole of his title and ordered him back to Rome
                    • Pole refused and continued to work in England as the Archbishop of Canterbury. The papacy didn't recognise his authority
                      • This further hindered him because he could not appoint bishops. By 1558 seven seas were vacant
                        • Such arguments and quarrels did little to convincepeople that it was a good idea to return to Rome
      • Winning Hearts and Minds
        • Such events, along with the persecutions and burnings, didn't help the government win over the people back to the RC church
          • Pole's hopes of RC being wholeheartedlly accepted was not realised
            • He appointed capable and active bishops, all of whom refused to serve under Elizabeth
              • In 1555 the Westminster synod approved the passing of the Twelve Decrees
                • This included the establishment of seminaries in every diocese for the training of priests
                  • But shortage of money limited the programme to a single creation of York
                    • This meant that had Mary lived longer, RC would not have gained wider support than the significant majority who kept their faith after the establishment of the Elithabethan Church
      • Assessment of the Church
        • It is hard to decide to what extent the bulk of the population had leanings one way or another
          • While it is easy to trace the changing pattern of official doctrine through the acts and statutes passed
            • It is more difficult to trace what the general population thought
              • The current consensus is that the ruling classes accepted the principle of the royal supremacy and were prepared to conform to the faith favoured by the monarch
                • Although the lower orders were generally considered to have a conservative attitudet o the traditional froms of worship
                  • It is thought that they were prepared to follow lead of local elites
                    • Whether the legislation passed depended on the attitudes of the loca elitesand to a lesser extent those of the parish authorities
                      • In general, it appears that by 1558 the majority of the people in England were still undecided about religion
                        • Amongst the elites there was strong support for the royal supremacy, but the landowners were willing to follow the religion of the legitimate monarch
                          • The mass of the public do not appear to have strong convictions one way or another
                            • In most cases they were willing to follow the lead of their social superiors
                              • Although there were small miorities of committed Protestants and Catholics, neither seemed to have a strong hold in England when Mary died
                                • When Elizabeth came to the throne the country was willing to return to a moderate form of protestantism but during her reign deeper religious divisions began to appear, and the unity of the CofE ended
    • It was just as much Edward's wish to preserve Protestantism as Northumberland's personal ambition that led to an attempt to exclude Mary from the throne
      • Mary and her supporters saw the failure of this as a miracle
        • But Mary failed to realise that her initial popularity was down to a dislike of Northumberland and respect for the succession that the desire to return to RC
    • Mary's supporters urged caution
      • Both Charles V and Pope Julius III urged her not to risk the throne by acting too rashly
        • Cardinal Reginal Pole (papal legate) stayed in the Netherlands a year before coming to England
          • Why?
            • Charles V didn't allow him to leave until the marriage between Philip and Mary
              • Or was it the Pope's reluctance to go back to his native land because he felt he would get a hostile reception>
    • Consequen-ces
      • Even Gardiner, Mary's trusted adviser, was unenthusiastic about restoring papal authority
      • Mary failed to realise the political implications of restoring RC to England
        • A return to papal authority would mean the end of the royal supremacy
          • This was supported by the ruling and landed classes
            • Even the most ardent of the leading conservatives had been firm in their allegiance to the Crown and the Tudor State
      • It is agreed by historians that the major cause of her unpopularity by the end of her reign, apart from religious persecution, was the return to Rome and he Spanish marriage
        • The latter was an affront to English nationalism
    • The Restoration of Anglo Catholicism
      • The aristocracy and gentry were initially prepared to conform to her religious views
        • 800 protestant gentry, clergy and members of the middle orders left for the continent and spent the remainder of the reign here
          • Escape was less easy for the common people and mos of the 274 protestants she burnt came from this group
      • At the beginning of her reign even the most religious radicals were not prepared to go against public opinion. They waited to see what would happen
      • When Mary used the royal prerogative, suspended the second Act of uniformity and restored the Mass, there was little public outcry
        • Lack of religious opposition was apparent when Parliament met in Oct 1553
          • The arrest of Cranmer, Hooper and Ridley with other leading Protestant bishops removed the major source of opposition in the HL
      • After lively debates, the first step of removing all traces of Protestantism was taken with the passing of the first Statute of Repeal
        • This act swept away all religious translations approved by Parliament during Edward's reign
          • The doctrine of the CofE was restored to what it had been in 1547 under the Act of Six Articles
            • Mary had succeeded in re-establishing Anglo Catholicism, there was no attempt to address the Act of Supremacy or discuss lands that had been sold to the laity
              • Both of these issues would have resulted in a heated debate

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