Educational attainment and ethnicity

  • Created by: chlopayne
  • Created on: 17-04-19 19:45
View mindmap
  • Educational attainment and ethnicity
    • Britain is a multicultural society.
    • There are inequalities in educational achievements of ethnic groups.
      • Whites and Asians do better than blacks.
      • Among all groups, girls do better than boys. Middle class do better than working class.
    • Internal factors
      • Factors within schools and education system.
      • Labelling and teacher racism
        • Interactionists focus different labels teachers give to ethnic backgrounds.
          • Studies show teachers often see black and Asian pupils as being far from the 'ideal pupil', this disadvantages them.
        • Gillborn and Youdell (2000) found teachers were quicker to discipline black pupils.
          • Black pupils felt teachers underestimated their ability.
            • Conflict between white teachers and black pupils stem from racial stereotypes teachers hold
          • Jenny Bourne (1994) found schools tend to see black boys as a threat and label them negatively, leading to exclusion.
            • Peter Foster (1990) found stereotypes of black pupils could result in them being placed in lower sets. Leading to lower levels of achievement.
        • Wright (1992) found teachers held ethnocentric views. Teachers assumed Asian pupils would have a poor grasp of English, leaving them out of class.
          • Asian pupils felt isolated. They were also marginalised.
        • Fuller (1984) study of black girls. These girls channelled their anger about being labelled and ended up being high achievers.
          • Conformed only as far as school work was concerned. Positive attitude to academic success, not approval of teachers.
        • Mirza (1992) also studied black girls who faced teacher racism. These girls however failed to achieve their ambitions.
        • Sewell (1998) studied black boys and found many teachers have stereotypes and label black boys.
          • He found they were part of four groups: rebels, conformists, retreatists and innovators.
      • Ethnocentric curriculum
        • Gives priority to culture and viewpoint of one ethnic group while disregarding others.
          • Troyna and Williams (1986) says British curriculum is ethnocentric, gives priority to white culture.
        • Stephen Ball (1994) criticises the curriculum for ignoring cultural and ethnic diversity.
          • Berard Coard explains how the ethnocentric curriculum may produce underachievement.
        • While it may ignore Asian culture, Indian and Chinese pupils achievement is above national average.
      • Institutional racism
        • Troyna and Williams argue we should look at how schools discriminate against ethnic minorities.
        • Curriculum is an example of institutional racism.
        • Studies of governing bodies provide more explanations of it.
          • Richard Hatcher (1996) found they gave low priority to race issues and failed to deal with pupils racist behaviour.
            • No communication between school. governs and ethnic minority parents.
        • Institutional racism create an environment where ethnic minority pupils are disadvantaged by a system that disregards their needs.
    • External factors
      • Factors outside the education system.
      • Cultural deprivation
        • Lack of intellectual and linguistic skills as a major cause of under achievement for minority children.
          • Children from low income black families lack intellectual stimulation and enriching experiences, leaving them poorly equipped for school.
          • Gordon Bowker (1968) identifies their lack of standard English asa a barrier to process and succeed in education.
          • Swann Report (1985) found language isn't a factor in under achievement, Mirza noted Indian pupils do well despite English not being their first language.
        • Failure to socialise children is the result of a dysfunctional family structure.
          • Daniel Moynihan (1965) argues many black families are headed by a lone mother, children are deprived of care due to financial struggles.
            • Fathers absence means boys lack a role model of male achievement.
          • Charles Murray (1984) - high rate of lone parenthood leads to underachievement of minorities.
          • Ken Pryce: Asian are higher achievers because their culture is more resistant to racism, and gives a greater sense of self worth.
            • Argues black Caribbean culture is less cohesive and resistant to racism. Leading to lower self esteem and to under achieve.
      • Material deprivation
        • Lack of physical necessities. Working class people are more likely to face it.
        • Education failure as a result of poor housing and low income.
          • Ethnic minorities are more likely to face those problems.
        • Class differences explain why Bangladeshi and Pakistani pupils do worse than Indian and white pupils.
          • Swann report shows social class account for 50% of achievement between ethnic groups.
          • However, Gillborn and Mirza argue that social class factors don't override the influence of ethnicity.
            • When we compare pupils of the same class but different ethnicities, there were stilll differences in achievement.
      • Racism in wider society
        • John Res (1986) shows racial discrimination leads to social exclusion, worsens the poverty faced by ethnic minorities.
          • Discriminationmeanns that minorities are more likely to be forced into poor housing.
        • In employment, there is direct and deliberate discrimination
          • Mike Noon (1993) sent identical applications to UK companies but found companies were more encouraging to the white candidate.
        • Helps to explain why ethnic minorities are more likely to face unemployment and low pay.
          • In turn has a negative effect on their children educational prospects.

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Sociology resources:

See all Sociology resources »See all Education resources »