Educational achievement: Internal factors

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  • Educational achievement: Internal Factors
    • School ethos
      • Character, atmosphere and climate of a school
      • Emphasis on:
        • Active participation in school life
        • Moral, spiritual and religious development
        • Equal opportunitieswith 0 tolerance of racism and bullying
        • Academic achievement
    • Subcultures
      • Groups of children who share the same values, norms and behaviour.
      • This gives them a sense of identity providing them support and peer group status
    • Hidden curriculum
      • Learn the importance of competition in the workplace this can be used to for promotions and social mobility
      • Pupils learn attitudes and values simply by participating in the daily routines of school life
      • Micheal Rutter investigated whether good schools make a difference to the life chances of all pupils
        • Features of schools organisation which makes this difference are:
          • Encouraging pupils to do well
          • Setting examples of behaviour
          • Sharing a common commitment to the aims and values of the school
          • Having high expectations of pupils
    • Labelling and the self-fulfilling prophecy
      • teachers label pupils based on ethnic, gender and class stereotypes
      • Pupils are constantly being assessed so they are labelled and places in classes based on it
      • once they have been given a label others will respond to them and interpret they actions in terms of that label.this leads to them acting according to it.
    • Streaming and Setting
      • Mixed ability
        • Teachers may lower the level of their teaching to suit the lower-ability pupils
        • Can reduce gaps in pupils achievement as all pupils are taught the same
      • Streaming : Pupils ae sorted into classes according to their ability and stay in these sets for all subjects
        • Students are likely to be better at some subjects than others
        • Stretches the brightest pupils, while allowing the less able to work at their own level + pace
      • Setting: pupils are sorted into classes according to their ability but on a subject by subject basis
        • It is easier to teach pupils of one ability
        • Can lead to low self-esteem for those in the lowest ability classes


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