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  • Created on: 27-04-15 22:01
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  • Education Sy2
    • Cultural Deprivation
      • Intellectual Development Douglas- found that working class pupils scored lower on tests of ability than middle class pupils. Bernstien and Young- they found that the way mothers think about and choose toys has an influence on their children's intellectual development.
        • Language Bernstein also identifies differences between working-class and middle class language that influence achievement. He distinguishes between two types of speech code: The restricted code; is the speech code typically used by the working class. The elaborate code; is used by the middle class. He argues that the working class-pupils fail not because they are culturally deprived, but because schools fail to teach them how to use the elaborate code.
          • Attitudes and Values Douglas found that working class parents placed less value on education, were less ambitious for their children. Feinstein - found that working- class parents lack of interest was the main reason for their children under achievement. Hyman- he argues that the values and beliefs of lower-class subculture are a 'self- imposed barrier' to educational and career success.
            • Sugarman - argues that working class subculture has four key feature that act as a barrier to educational achievement: Fatalism,Collectivism,immediate-gratification,present-time orientaion.
              • The myth of cultural deprivation - Keddie - describes cultural deprivation as a myth and a victim blaming expiation. Troyna & Williams - argue that the problem is not the child's language but the schools attitude towards it.
                • Material Deprivation
                  • Many sociologists see material deprivation as the main cause of under-achievement. there is a close link between poverty and social class.
                    • Factors such as Housing and Diet and health. Howard- notes that young people from poorer homes have lower intakes of energy, vitamins and minerals.
                      • While material factors clearly play a part in achievement the fact that some children from poor families do succeed suggests that material deprivation is only part of the explanation.
                        • Cultural Capital
                          • Bourdieu: three types of capital. He uses the concept of 'capital' to explain why the middle class are more successful.
                            • Cultural Capital - Bourdieu, uses the term cultural capital to refer to the knowledge,attitudes,values,language,tastes and abilities of the middle class. He argues that through their socialization, middle-class children acquire the ability to grasp, analyse and express abstract ideas.
                              • Educational and Economic Capital - Bourdieu- argues that educational, economic and cultural capital can be converted into one another. For example, middle-class children with cultural capital are better equipped to meet the demands of the school curriculum and gain qualifications.
                            • Alice sulivan - used questionnaires to conduct a survey to assess thier cultural cpital.
                              • she found that those who read complex fiction developed a wider vocabulary/ and greater cultural knowledge.
                                • Gewirtz; Marketisation and parental choice
                                  • Privileged - skilled choosers - Professional middles-class parents who used their cultural capital for their children.
                                    • Semi -skilled choosers - these parents was also mainly working class but unlike the disconnected- local choosers, they were ambitious for thier children.
                                  • DIsconnected - local choosers - These working class parents whose choices were restricted by thier lack of economic and cultural capital.
                                    • Gewirtz - concludes that middle- class families with cultural and economic capital are better placed to take advantage of the available opportunities for a good education.
    • Labelling
      • Becker- studied labeling in classrooms.
        • Cicourel & Kitsuses- study of educational counselors in an american high school shows how such labeling can disadvantage working- class students. They found they judged the students according to their ability, in practice they judged them largely on the basis of their social class and/or race.
          • sharp and Green, they argue that the negative labeling of working-class children is also the result of inequalities between the social classes in wider society, not just classroom interactions.
            • Keddie- found, both pupils and knowledge can be labeled as high or low status.
              • The self- fulfilling prophecy - Rosenthal & Jacobson show the self-fulfilling prophecy at work. They suggest that the teachers beliefs about the pupils had been influenced by the supposed test results.
                • The self- prophecy can also produce under- achievement.
                  • Douglas found that children placed a lower stream at the age 8 had suffered a decline a decline in their IQ score by age 11. By contrast, middle class pupils tend to benefit from streaming.
                    • Pupil Sub-Culture
                      • Laceys- concepts of differentiation and polarization to explain how pupil subculture develop.
                        • Differentiation is the process of teachers categorizing pupils according to how they perceive their ability, attitude and / or behavior . Polarization, on the other hand, is the process in which pupils respond to streaming by moving towards one of the two opposite'poles' or 'exterms'.
                          • the pro-school subculture-pupils placed in high streams tend to remain committed to the values of the school.The anti-school subculture- Lacey found that those placed in low streams suffer a loss of self-esteem: the school has undermined their self-worth by placing them in a position of inferior status.
                            • Abolishing Streaming Ball - found that when the school abolished banding, the basis for pupils to polarize into subcultures was largely removed and the influence of the anit- social subculture declined.
                            • The variety of pupil responses woods argues other responses such as ingration,ritualism,retreatism,rebellion.
                              • The limitations of labeling theory  - it has been accused of determinism, that is assumes that pupils who are labelled have no choice but to fulfill the prophecy and will inevitably fail. However, fullers shows this is not always true and female often reject labels.
                                • Marxists argue that labels are not merely the result of teachers individual prejudices, but stem from the fact that teachers work in a system that reproduces class divisions.
                                  • Marketisation and selection policies
                                    • The A- to C economy and educational triage Youdell call this process ' educational triage' which means sorting.
                                      • They argue the A- c economy produces educational triage. scholls catergroise pupils inti' those who will pass', those with potential and hopeless cases.
                                        • Competition and Selection
                                          • Barlett - Cream-skimming : slecting higher ability pupils, who gain the best results and cost less to teach, silt-shifting - : off-loading pupils with learning difficulties, who are expensive to teach and get poor results.
                                            • there is evidence, then, that markestetisation and selection processes have created a polarized education system:popular, successful, well-resourced schools with a more able, largely middle -class intake at one extreme and unpopular, 'failing', under-resourced schools with mainly low-achieving working- class pupils at the other. Gewirtz describes this as a 'blurred hierarchy' of schools.
    • The gender gap in achievement
      • In 2006, for example, 95.8% of grils passed both AS and A level, girls were more likely to gain A, B and C grades, even in so-called 'boys' subjects such as maths and Physics. the average A level points score in sttae schools was 274 for boys, but 295 for girls.
        • At GCSE, figures show, the gender gap stands at around 10 percentage points.
          • The feminist movement has had considerable success in improving women rights and opportunities through changes in the law.
            • The 1970 Equal Pay Act makes it illegal to pay women less than men for work of equal value, and the 1975 Sex Discrimination Act outlaws sex discrimination in employment
              • Sharpe found that girls were now more likely to see their future as an independent woman with a career rather than as dependent on their husband and his income.
                • Boaler sees the impact of equal opportunities policies as a key reason for the changes in girls achievement. many of the barriers have been removed and schooling has become more meritocratic, so that girls, who generally work harder than boys, achieve more.
                  • Browne claims that girls are more successful in coursework because they are more conscientious and better organised than boys.
                    • Francis also found that whole boys got more attention, they were disciplined more harshly and felt picked on by teachers, who tended to have lower exceptions of them.
                      • Liberal Feminst - this is similar to the functionalist view that education is a meritocracy where all individuals, regardless of gender, ethnicity or class, are given an equal opportunity to achieve.
                        • Radical Feminist - take a more critical view. They emphasize that the system remains patriarchal. for example sexual harassment of girls continues at school.
                          • Boys and literacy - According to the DCSF, the gender gap is mainly the result of boys' poorer literacy and language skills.
                            • Mitsos and Browne claim that this decline in male employment opportunities has led to an ''identity crisis for men'.
                              • Sewell is reported as claiming that boys fall behind because education has become 'feminized'.
                                • He argues; ' we have challenged the 1950s patriarchy and rightly said this is not a mans world but we have thrown the boy out with the bath water.
                                  • For example, large numbers of boys are being brought up in the 1.5 million female - headed lone parent families in the UK.
                                    • 'Laddish' subcultures - Epstein- examined the way masculinity is constructed within schools. she found that'Laddish' subcultures - Epstein- examined the way masculinity is constructed within  working-class boys are likely to be harassed, labelled as sissies.
                                      • Boys may now be lagging behind girls, but boys today are achieving more than they did in the past.
                                        • By contrast, pupils of the same gender but different social classes  achieved widely class were 44 points ahead of girls from the lowest class. these figures show that class is a more important influence on a pupils achievement than gender.
                                          • Nonetheless, this topic has shown us that girls generally do better than boys- so gender clearly does influence achievement.
                                            • Willis - Working - class boys definitions of masculinity are often hostile to schooling and contribute to their under- achievement.
                                              • Brownie- argue that children beliefs about' gender domains' are shaped by their early experiences and the expectations of adults.
                                                • Dewar- found that male students would call girls ' lesbian' or 'butch' of they appeared to be more interested in sport than in boys.
                                                  • Lees= found that boys called girls ' slags if they didn't.
    • Ethnic Differences
      • With many working-class white pupils performing at a lower level than that of other ethnic group. For example, according to a DfEs study, in 2006 on;y 24% of white boys on free school meals - a common measure of low income gained five A*-C grades at GCSE.
        • External Factors and ethnic differences in achievement
          • Cultural Deprivation - Bowker - identifies their lack of standard English as a mayor barrier to progress in education and integration into wider society .Gilbron & Miza - note that Indian pupils do very well despite often not having English as their home language.
            • Murray- argues that a high rate of lone parenthood and lack of positive male role models lead to the under-achievement of some minorities. -
              • Khan- describes Asian families as 'stress ridden', bound by tradition and with a controlling towards children, especially girls.
                • Criticisms of cultural deprivation - Driver - criticizes cultural development theory for ignoring the positive effects of ethnicity on achievement.  Keddie- she argues that ethnic minority children are culturally different, not culturally deprived. They under-achieve because schools are ethnocentric:: biased in favour of white culture and against minorities.
                  • Material deprivation - Pakistanis and Bangladeshi are over three times more likely than whites to be in the poorest fifth of the population. Unemployment is three times higher for African and Bangladeshi/Pakistani people than for whites/
                    • Racism in wider society - Noon - sent identical pairs of letters of inquiry about future to the top companies. in terms of replies, the compaines were more encouraging to the 'white' candidate.
                      • Internal Factors and ethnic differences in achievement
                        • Labeling and teacher racism - Gillbron - found that teachers were quicker to discipline black pupils than others for the same behavior. They are argued that this is the result of 'racialised expectations'.
                          • Wrights study of multi-ehtnic primary school shows that Asian pupils can also be victims of teachers labeling For example teachers assumed they would have a poor grasp of English and left them out of class discussions or used simplistic, childish language when speaking to them.
                            • Pupil responses and subculture Fuller and Mac an Ghail : rejecting negative labels Fuller - describes how, instead of accepting negative labels stereotypes of themselves, the girls channeled their anger about being labelled into the pursuit of educational success.
                              • Mirza: failed strategies for avoiding racism. He found that racist teachers discouraged black pupils from being ambitious through the kind of advice they gave them about careers and option choices.
                                • Mirza- identifies three types of teacher racism. 1. The colour blind. 2.The liberal chauvinists, 3. The overt racists.
                                  • Sewell: the variety of boys responses. in his study of boys ;secondary school, he found that many teachers had a sterotype of 'black machismo': which sees all black boys as rebellious, anit- autority and anti-school.
                                    • Using merton classification of conformity and deviance, Sewell identifies four ways in which the boys responded to racist stereotyping.
                                      • 1. The rebels- The rebls the most visible and influential group, but they were only a small minority of black pupils.
                                        • 2.The conformists - were the largest groups. these were keen to succeed, accepted the schools goals and has friends from different ethnic groups.
                                          • 3.The retreatists- They were a tiny minority of isolated individuals who were isolated individuals who were disconnected from both school and black subcultures, and were despised by the rebels.
                                            • 4.The Innovators- Like fuller girls, they were pro-education but anti-school.
                                              • The Evaluation of labeling and pupil responses - Gillbron and youdell argue that the policy of publishing legaue tables created an A- C economy' and leads to large numbers of black and working-class pupils being placed in lower streams or entered for lower- tier exams.
                                                • The ethnocentric Curriclum- Tryona & Williams describe the curriculum in British schools as ethnocentric because it gives priority to white culture and the English language.
                                                  • institutional racism- 1. Individual racism- that results from the prejudiced views of individuals. 2. Institutional racism- discrimination that is built into the way institutions such as schools and colleges operate.
                                                    • Selection and Segregation - Gillborn - argues that marketiskation has given schools greater scope to select pupils and this puts some ethnic minority at a disadvantage.
                                                      • Evans concludes ethnicity that to understand the relationship between ethnicity and achievement, we need to look at how ethnicity interacts with gender and class.

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