Sociology - Education

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  • Created by: SetoKabia
  • Created on: 20-02-14 13:24
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  • Education, Socialisation and Citizenship
    • 1980s New Vocationalism Movement - aims was to improve education to match the needs of the economy, Conservatives and New Labour helped to introduce vocational courses
    • Structuralists - interested in education in terms of its functions as part of a broader social system
    • Interactionists - interested in the processes which occur inside education institutions - roles and meanings within the classroom
      • Labelling Theory - examines how the identity and behaviour of individuals is shaped by their catergorisation by significant social others
        • i.e teachers steryotype certain students
        • RESEARCH STUDY: David Hargreaves (73) - interviewed boys in inner city secondary schools , anti school subcultures are formed as a response to negative labelling
        • Peter Woods (81) - division between pro and and anti school subcultures is simple. Students adapt based on how they are treated
      • RESEARCH STUDY: Hargreaves, Hestor and Mellor (75) - overt participation and unstructured in 2 schools, showed how teachers label students in 3 steps 1. Speculation - teachers make guesses about students based on appearance  2. Elaboration - teachers test their hypotheses to be either confirmed or contradicted 3. Stabilisation - teachers hypotheses solidify
        • Self-Fufilling Prophecy - the phenomenon by which, through a range of processes, labels attached to students become true - regardless of their accuracy
          • RESEARCH STUDY: Rosenthal and Jacobson (68) - gave IQ tests to students in California, 20% of students were selected and teachers were told to expect rapid improvement - a year later the students were retested and had dramatic improvements, teachers subconsciously taught the children better
  • Marxists and Feminists argue education is used as an ideological tool to legitimise exploitation
    • Marxists
      • Althusser - education has a hidden curriculum which transmits values of obedience and respect for authority - Promoting Capitalism
        • Proletariat Passive - working population following orders
      • RESEARCH STUDY: Bowles and Gintis (76) in "Schooling in Capitalist America" they argue school benefits society through the "Correspondence Principal" which prepares children to join the proletariat
        • Hard work is rewarded with intrinsic rewards
    • Feminists
      • Stress gender rather than class inequality
      • Agree with Marxists that education legitimises inequalities
      • Influenced Social Policy - Curriculum ensures all students cover subjects avoiding gender dominance in certain subjects
        • Introduction of citizenship into the curriculum in 2002 aims to teach students about British life
        • Liberal Education - students exposed to wide range of subjects to produce well rounded students
      • RESEARCH STUDY: Osler and Starkey (03) - argue citizenship is based on a "Deficit Model" seeing young people as dangerous but poltically apathetic
        • Subject doesn't match needs or interests of students = Alientates them
        • Ethinc Minorities suffer dual deficet because they are labelled because of their age and their minoirty
      • RESEARCH STUDY: Hamilton (03) - messages about "appropiate aspirations" were evident when girls and boys were selecting work placement
  • Marxists
    • Althusser - education has a hidden curriculum which transmits values of obedience and respect for authority - Promoting Capitalism
      • Proletariat Passive - working population following orders
    • RESEARCH STUDY: Bowles and Gintis (76) in "Schooling in Capitalist America" they argue school benefits society through the "Correspondence Principal" which prepares children to join the proletariat
      • Hard work is rewarded with intrinsic rewards
  • Labelling Theory - examines how the identity and behaviour of individuals is shaped by their catergorisation by significant social others
    • i.e teachers steryotype certain students
    • RESEARCH STUDY: David Hargreaves (73) - interviewed boys in inner city secondary schools , anti school subcultures are formed as a response to negative labelling
    • Peter Woods (81) - division between pro and and anti school subcultures is simple. Students adapt based on how they are treated

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