Education Mind Map - Sociology AS AQA

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  • Created by: Emma Bunn
  • Created on: 14-04-13 12:55
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  • Education
    • The role of the Education System
      • Perspectives- Functionalism,  Marxism and the New Right perspective
        • FUNCTIONALISTS say that social institutions like education perform positive functions for society and it's individuals.
          • DURKHEIM: SOLIDARITY AND SKILLS
            • Promotes social solidarity - education binds people together and enables them to cooperate. Provides children with a common purpose and universalistic rules
            • Preparing Young People for Work - education equips young people with skills needed to participate in work
          • Parsons -  socialisation and Meritocracy
            • Secondary  Socialisation - socialises individuals into the shared values of a meritocracy society
            • Meritocracy -  schools are a miniature society both meritocratic. Individuals succeed or fail depending on ability and effort. It helps to prepare them for modern society which is competitive and individualistic
          • Davis and Moore - Role Allocation : the main function of education is role allocation, the selection and allocation of individuals to their future work roles
        • MARXISM -  Class division and exploitation. In this capitalist society there are 2 classes - ruling and subject class
          • Social institutions just reproduce class inequalities and teaching children that social exploitation is justified and acceptable
            • BOWLES AND GINTIS
              • They claim that capitalism needs workers with obedient attitudes and submissive personalities that are willing to accept hard work, low pay and authority
              • Education reproduces an obedient, exploitable workforce that accepts social inequality and captialism
              • HIDDEN CURRICULUM
                • Education transmits messages to students about society  via rewards and cooperation
              • Meritocracy is a myth: class background determines how well a person does. Education creates a particular way of thinking - justifying inequality
        • NEW RIGHT PERSPECTIVE - believe that there is too much state control over education and a culture of welfare dependency has developed
          • State control has resulted in inefficiency, national economic decline and lack of personal business
            • The state should provide equality and meritocracy for all
          • State run schools have low standards due to inefficient education for all
            • MARKETISATION
              • Forces schools to respond to the needs of the pupils, parents and employers. e.g. Competition
          • The state does have a limited role which is creating a framework for competition between schools and the state still ensures that schools transmit society's shared culture through a curriculum
    • Social Class and Education Attainment
      • Social Class - Material and Cultural Deprivation
        • Cultural Deprivation - socialisation of norms and values
          • Some think that Working Class Parents fail to transmit the appropriate norms, values, attitudes, skills and knowledge
          • 3 factors which are responsible for working-class under-achievement :
            • The restricted speech code - Bernstein (1975) identified 2 different speech codes
              • Middle Class Elaborated Code - wider vocabulary, more analytic and complex sentences
              • Working Class Restricted Code - more descriptive, limited vocab and simple sentences
            • A lack of intellectual stimulation - intellectual development is stunted due to WC parents not providing educational toys and activities for their children
            • Working Class Subculture - immediate gratification, fatalism and low value on ecuation
    • Gender and Educational Attainment
      • Patterns of achievement and gender gap
        • In the past boys were achieving higher than girls however girls have over taken boys and now are doing better than them
        • In 2007 66% of girls got 5+ GCSEs C-A* compared 57% of boys
        • Feminism have a major impact on women's rights and opportunities. They have changed girls image and aspirations, as a result motivated girls to do well in education.
          • Sharpe compared two studies of working class girls in the 1970s and 1990s.
            • In 1970s girls main priorities were marriage, children and husbands.
            • In the 1990s she found girls aspirations had changed  from marriage to careers
        • Changes in the family means women and men must be more economically independent - motivation to do well in education
          • divorce laws, single parent families, more cohabitation & smaller families
          • more employment opportunities for women - changes in the law (sex discrimination act, pay gap)
      • Boys underachievement can be due to poor literacy skills. Reading is seen as "feminine"
        • Globalisation  and decline of traditional male jobs - identity crisis, loss of motivation and self esteem
          • Feminisation of schools - this disadvantages boys.  Also there is a lack of male primary teachers = make boys think school is a feminine activity
    • Ethnicity and Education Attainment
      • Asian students are attaining the highest grades whereas black WC students are doing the worst
      • External factors - cultural and material deprivation, and also racism in wider society
        • Lacking intellectual and language skills. Also different attitudes, values and family structure play a big part
          • Fatalism & immediate gratification
          • Lack of male role model
          • Culture of poverty
          • The impact of slavery - less resistant to racism which can lead to low self-esteem and under-achievement
          • Asian families - strict, motivated and high aspirations
        • Racial discrimination in jobs and housing - social exclusion - unemployment,low pay, inadequate housing - affects children's education
        • Labelling by teachers - self fulfilling prophecy
    • Relationships and Processes within Schools
      • Hidden curriculum - informal messages and lessons that influence behaviour and attitudes of individuals.
        • functionalist like Durkheim and Parsons say that it helps both society and the invididual
        • Marxists argue that it just helps to reproduce a exploited   workforce. Only benefits the ruling class
          • Bowles and Gintis think that HCs main role is to produce a exploited and manipulated work force for capitalists
        • Feminists argue that the HC is only benefiting one particular group - they think that the HC is transmitting  patriarchal values
      • Teacher expectations - labelling and the ideal pupil. Discriminates against other pupils. = self-fulfilling prophecy
        • Setting - based on perceived ability streaming - based on overall ability level
    • Social Policy and Education
      • Development of state education
        • 1944 EDUCATION ACT - TRIPARTITE SYSTEM. Grammar, secondary modern and Technical schools. 11+ Test decide what school children went to
  • Conservative Education Reform Act 1965 - introduced comprehensive schools, new curriculum, league tables, types of schools (grant maintained)
    • 1944 EDUCATION ACT - TRIPARTITE SYSTEM. Grammar, secondary modern and Technical schools. 11+ Test decide what school children went to
    • Marketisation
    • Labour Policies - promoting diversity, choice and equality. VOCATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS

Comments

Tanou

it's confusing.. all these lines and colours mixed together :( 

please there are not another kind of mind map in a simplest form?

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