education policy

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  • education policies
    • 1944 tri - partite system
      • influenced by the idea of meritocracy
        • people should achieve status through own abilities
      • provides different education to different students
      • grammar, secondary modern, secondary technical
        • 11+ exam determines which school student attends
      • provides equal opportunity - ability determines school not class or wealth
      • evaluation
        • reproduced class inequalities - MC achieved higher due to resources
        • reproduced gender inequalities - girls needed higher marks to get grammar place
    • labour policies
      • reducing inequality in achievement and promoting diversity and choice
      • aim higher
        • encouraging children from deprived areas to go to uni
      • raising leaving age to 18 - raising participant age (RPA)
      • education action zones (EAZs)
        • more money into schools in poor areas
      • education maintenance allowance (EMA)
        • money to students from low income families to go to college / stay at school
      • evaluation
        • the 'new labour' paradox
          • EMA and RPA vs tuition fees
            • even though pupils are staying in education until 18, they are deterred from uni
    • 1988 - marketisation
      • schools were encouraged to compete against each other and act like businesses
        • competing for students
      • examples of marketisation
        • league tables
        • OFSTED reports
        • funding formula
          • dependent on the number of students a school had
        • national curriculum
      • evaluation
        • Ball argues that it benefited MC - schools more selective over intake
          • cream skimming
            • picking the best students (MC)
          • silt shifting
            • avoid taking bad students
          • WC go to under performing schools
    • 1965 - comprehensive system
      • aimed to overcome class divide
        • make education more meritocratic
      • 11+ exam abolished
      • one school system introduced - places at schools were based on if student lived in catchment area
      • evaluation
        • reproduced class inequality due to streaming and labelling
    • parentocracy
      • power shifts away from the producer (schools) to the consumers (parents)
        • increase in competitive-ness - development of choice for parents
        • ruled by parents
        • if a school has high funding formula this will attract more parents
      • evaluation
        • Gerwitz identified 3 types of parents
          • priviledged skills choosers
            • MC, use cultural and economic capital to get children into best schools
          • semi skilled choosers
            • ambitious WC, lack economic and cultural capital
            • rely on others - social capital
          • disconnected locals
            • WC, lack of economic and cultural capital, send children to local school
    • privatisation
      • intended to raise standards and increase profits
      • blurring the public / private boundary
        • many senior officials in the public sector leave to set up or work for private sector education businesses
      • globalisation of education
        • many education companies are foreign- owned
        • some UK edu- businesses work overseas, privatising and exporting UK education policy
      • education as a commodity
        • education is being privatised - turned into a commodity owned by private companies
          • bought and sold in an education market
            • education is a source of profit for capitalists

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