education mind map

key information and sociologists

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  • education
    • the role and purpose of education
      • functionalism
        • education is important for social stability, mobility and cohesion
        • Durkheim- school is a miniture society
        • Parsons does the gap between particularistic values of the family (ascribed status of kids) to universalistic values of society (meritocracy)
        • Davis and Moore-  role allocation. better qualification better job
      • marxism
        • althusser-  reproduction of skill and ideology ..ideological state apparatus .. false class conciousness
        • bourdieu- habitus...m/c have cultural capital
        • illich and friere-  hegemony  promote conformity not freedom  conformity= success
        • bowels and gintis- CORRESPONDENCE THEORY- hidden curriculum  legitimizes inequality
          • gender, class ethnicity are all factors in educational success
        • meritocracy is a myth
      • the new right
        • believe in role allocation anf it should socialise the young  into collective values and responsible citizenship
        • Chubb and moe- state schools  ARE BAD . should be ran like a Business--> raises standards of education
      • interactionist
        • paul willis LADS
          • priority to leave school and earn money - they have lack of respect for auhority and want to have a laff
      • vocational education
        • funcs and new rights think this is hella good
        • marxits think it bad  SECOND RATE
          • w/c with more academic educatiom get better jobs
        • want to improve positions in the global market
          • done that by introducing work experience
    • school organisation, school process , teaching and learning (internal factors)
      • rutter- school ethos - pupil s are valued.. emphasis on academic success
      • hidden curriculum- everything a student learns outside the overt curriculum
      • labelling
        • Hemple jorgenson i deal pupil lisens, works hard, has good academic success and stays awy frokm troube
        • gilborns ideal pupil are white people b/c are denied opportunities and are placed in lower sets and
        • rosenthal and jacobson- self fullfiling prophecy
        • fuller labels black girls however they want to  work hard and prove them wrong
        • beckers ideal pupil . is that the teachers evaluate the students abd judge the quality of the pupil
      • banding streaming and setting.
        • ball-smart ones are warmed up and dumb  ones are cooled out dif levels of encouragment
        • smyth lower streams are negative towards school teaching pace too slow and spend less tie on homework
        • keddie- teachers from smarter streams taught different form lower streams.. they expect more work done..
      • differentiation and polarisation
        • lacey students judged on success, good behaviour and hard work- differentiatiom polarisation two different streams those who conform and those who do not
      • pro school and anti school subcultures
        • pro school
          • sewell- pro school subculture found among some black pupils THEY WANT TO HAVE SUCCESS avoid racist stereotypes by conforming to school values
          • mac and ghail found ACADEMIC ACHIEVERS AND NEW ENTERPRIESERS  small group of asians and working class white pupils wanting middle class careers dont through academic and vocational studies.
        • anti school
          • woods 8 responses that go from pro to anti ingratiation compliance opportunism ritualism retreatism colonisation intransigence rebellion
    • is the uk meritocratic? external factors
      • class
        • working class students are disadvantaged
          • home life (over crowded damp and nutrition)
            • waldfofel and washbrook a child living in damp or overcrowded housing eill make home study difficult.. poor nutrition leads to days off school
          • cultural capital
          • problem schools in deprived areas- cathcement areas
            • Nationa equality panel- highest achievers come from most advantaged areas very few coming from deprived areas
          • working class subcultures
          • culture clash between home and school
          • language
            • bernstiens elaborate (middle class) and restricted code (working class)
        • teacher labelling
        • material deprivation
          • home life (over crowded damp and nutrition)
            • waldfofel and washbrook a child living in damp or overcrowded housing eill make home study difficult.. poor nutrition leads to days off school
        • parental attitudes
          • gibson and asthana- greater the level in family disadvantage ( lack of parental qualification unemployment and ownership of a car) the less likely children would get 5 a*-c
          • sodha and margo- parental attitudes, language codes create a disengagement from education for the most disadvantaged sections of the working class  this involves a barrier of low aspirationa and expectation
        • social captal
        • educational achievement
          • perry and francis -social class is the strongest predictor of educational achievement whether a child will do good or bad in school
      • gender
        • girls have better language skills
        • boys have less traditional roles
          • w/c male jobs explain a factor  in under achieving at school .. no motivation as limited prospects
        • boys behaviour is worse
        • teacher expectations
        • equal opportunities have benefitted girls
        • peer group
          • forde peer group pressure encourages bous to maintain a dominant masculine identity
          • epstein- boys risked being bullied and labelled as gay if they were hard working
        • mitsos and browne- girls out perform  boys mature later.. male ID crisis . females are more motivated and have better behaviour
        • sharpe girls prioriities have changed girls used to wan t love kids and marriage now they want a career and a stable job then love marriage and kids
          • the job market has never meant more to women than it does now... they expect to gain a degree.
        • subject choices
          • gender socialisation
            • lobban- gender steareotyping in childrens books
            • Oakley  three stages  verbal appelation s cannalisation and channelling
          • subject counselling
            • colley- arts and humanities are feminine subjects and science and tech is masculine
            • skelton- male and females may be drawn to different subjects as it may be more appropriate for their gender
      • ethnicity
        • ethnocentric curriculum
        • teacher labelling / expectations
          • gillborn low expectations were continued int secondary school and were fuelled by teacher perceptions of behaviour  related to issues concerningb/c young people
        • racism among students
          • cline- racism amongpupils being called names and rudeness cause of  their ethnicity
        • family life and parental support
          • modood-parental aspiration, support and encourageme is an importnat factor to EMS  they are more lieky to go to higher education
          • pupils from MEPs have greater family support than others.
        • language
          • the swan report - language may hold back some students the majority they were of little importance
        • social class and material factors- more likely to be low income
        • lowest achieve B/C ****s and bangis and w/c white people
          • lower w/c families have negative attitudes towards learning and school
          • bhatti banglideshi and **** students are often ignored, not a chance to answer a question or being helped ir responsibility
        • highest achieving: CHINA INDIA
        • lack of cultural capital
        • gillbourn and youdell educational triagereinfores the failure of black students as they were put into lower streams
    • educational policies
      • policies that improve equality
        • tripartite system 1944.. comprehensive schools.. pupil premium.. national curriculum.. changes to school admisions code
          • no success.. diff to implement policies that intervene with fam an  home life... socialisation takes place so early in the home ... tackling pooverty alone wont reverse the issue.. policies  like FSM may make some chuildren feel theres stigma.. schools may misuse funds
      • selection policies
        • schools prefer students from m/c homes
        • they work in three ways
          • selection by ability
          • selection by aptitude
          • selection by faith
        • argments for  selection by ability ... benefits high flyers sa they can be challenged in top set classes no students held back.. more social cohesion fewer social divisions if everyone is educated together... mixed ability teaching can have a positive impact on all abilities espescially the less able .. reduces risk of labelling so students have better self esteem
        • arguments against selection by ability .. some students may be late developers academically by then they may have already missed out  on the top school
      • admissions policies
        • All state schools must follow the School Admissions Code. This is sothat all types of students have equality of access to all schools.Open enrolment – parents can apply for their children to go to anyschool in any area, if the school is not full they must be accepted.In 2013-2014 there were 50,000 appeals by parents who did not gettheir first choice of school for their child – the good schools are oversubscribed.
        • Admission policies in over subscribed schoolsPriority goes to children in care, those with brothers or sisters at theschool already, catchment area (best schools tend to be in middleclass areas – fair?) or faith.
        • Covert selection – forbidden but some schools find ways to ‘cherrypick’ the best students. E.g. giving parents the impression that theschool is really middle class and therefore will not meet the needs oftheir child, making forms and literature difficult to understand,expensive uniforms, not promoting in poorer neighbourhoods, findingout information from religious leaders about families.
      • globalisation and education policies
        • Globalisation has impacted on education policy in two ways– marketisation and privatisation.
        • Education is a multi billion pound global market. Hancock(2014) – education exports from Britain in 2012 were worth18 billion – e.g. resources and private education/uni forstudents from abroad.
        • International comparisons data – PISA- programme forinternational student assessment and TIMSS – Trends inInternational Mathematics and Science study, PIRLS –Progress in international reading literacy study.
        • Countries then get put in to league tables. In 2012 –England came out 26th in Maths and 23rd in reading. Thisthen leads to changes in policies…
      • privatisation and policy
        • Endogenous – Privatisation IN education-Schools manage themselves like independent businesses.-Very few external controls.Funded by the number of students they have = competition fornumbers.Staff pay and contracts let by the school = growing use ofunqualified staff
        • Exogenous – Privatization OF educationRefers to privatization outside of the education system – profitmaking businesses.School services like training, transport, maintenance, cleaning, HR,IT staff.Chains of academy trusts which manage a group of schools.School inspection companies which run on behalf of OfstedBranding and marketing for schools.Running examination systems e.g. Pearson Edexcel - provideacademic qualifications in over 70 countries.
        • pros of privitization......More business like so more efficientMore choice for parentsProfit made can improve failing schools
        • cons of privitization.... Money can be drained from the educationsystemProfit making management might cherry pickeasy to improve schools.Schools can go out of business and leave an areawithout a school.
      • marketization and policy
        • Independence for schools – run like businesses.Competition – compete for studentsChoice – parents have a choice where they wantto send their child – league tables to inform them.Parentocracy – ‘parent power’ – parents havemore rights and choices – education based on therights and wealth of parents rather than academicability of children.
        • Types of state funded schools in 2015 Specialist schools (subject) Grammar Community Free Foundation and trust schools Faith City technical colleges Special schools Academies
      • policies by specific governments
        • National literacy and numeracy strategies – LabourGovernment – 1998-2010 Primary schools did 2 hoursof Maths and English every day.
        • Coalition Government slimmed down the nationalcurriculum to ‘Essential Knowledge’ which MichaelGove said other nations were passing on to theirchildren.
        • Raising the academic entry requirements for traineeteachers in 2012 – this was after comparisons withFinland.
        • Master teachers – In 2014 the Labour partyannounced that if it won in 2015 it would create a newelite grade of master teachers in all state schools –comparison with Singapore.
  • ethnicity
    • ethnocentric curriculum
    • teacher labelling / expectations
      • gillborn low expectations were continued int secondary school and were fuelled by teacher perceptions of behaviour  related to issues concerningb/c young people
    • racism among students
      • cline- racism amongpupils being called names and rudeness cause of  their ethnicity
    • family life and parental support
      • modood-parental aspiration, support and encourageme is an importnat factor to EMS  they are more lieky to go to higher education
      • pupils from MEPs have greater family support than others.
    • language
      • the swan report - language may hold back some students the majority they were of little importance
    • social class and material factors- more likely to be low income
    • lowest achieve B/C ****s and bangis and w/c white people
      • lower w/c families have negative attitudes towards learning and school
      • bhatti banglideshi and **** students are often ignored, not a chance to answer a question or being helped ir responsibility
    • highest achieving: CHINA INDIA
    • lack of cultural capital
    • gillbourn and youdell educational triagereinfores the failure of black students as they were put into lower streams

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