Education - Class (External Factors)

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  • Education - Class (External Factors)
    • Cultural Deprivation
      • Language
        • Parents who use language that challenges their child will cognitively improve their performance. Feinstein found that parents who have been educated are more likely to use this language
          • In comparison, parents that are less educated tend to use language that only require the child to make simple decisions. This lowers the performance of the child
          • Bereiter and Englemann claim that the language used by lower social classes is deficient. Lower class families will communicate via gestures and single words
            • In comparison, parents that are less educated tend to use language that only require the child to make simple decisions. This lowers the performance of the child
            • As a result children don't develop the necessary language skills. They are then fore unable to take advantage of the opportunities that the school offers
        • Speech Codes
          • Bernstein
          • Restricted Code
            • Used by the working class. It has limited vocabulary and has short and grammatically incorrect sentences. Speech is predictable and is descriptive. The restricted code is context bound, the speaker assumes the listener has had the same experiences
              • Untitled
          • Elaborated Code
            • Use by the middle class. It has a wider vocabulary and has longer and more grammatically correct sentences. The elaborated code is context free, the speaker doesn't assume the listener has had the same experiences
          • The differences in the language codes gives the middle class children an advantage. The elaborated code is used by teachers, textbooks and exams which means the middle class pupils will better be able to understand
      • Parents education
        • Douglas found working class parents placed less value on education, they are less ambitious for their children, give them less encouragement and took less intrest in education.
          • As a result the child had lower levels of motivation and achievement
        • Parenting Style
          • Educated parents parenting style emphasises consistent discipline and puts high exceptions on their children.
          • In contrast less educated parents parenting style has more harsh or inconsistent discipline. This prevents the child from learning independence leading to poor motivation at school
        • Parents educational behaviours
          • Educated parents are aware of what is needed in order to assit their children. They are also better able in building relationship with teachers and better at guiding their children. They also recognise the value of activities such as visits to museums
        • Use of income
          • Better educated parents tend to have more income which they will spend to promote their children educational success
            • Middle class mothers are more like to buy educational toys, whereas working class homes are more likely to lack these items. Middle class families will able have a better understanding nutrition and it's importance in child development
      • Working-Class Subculture
        • Cultural deprivation theorists argue the lack of parental interest in their child's education reflects the subculture values of the working class. Large sections of the working class have different goals and thats why their children fail at school
        • Sugarman
          • Fatalism- 'whatever will be will be' there is nothing you can do to change your status
          • Collectivism- Valuing being a part of a group more than succeeding as an individual
          • Immediate gratification- Seeking please now rather than making sacrifices in order to get rewards in the future
          • Present time orientation- seeing the present as more important than the future
        • Compensatory education
          • Compensatory education programmes aim to tackle cultural deprivation problems by providing extra resources. They intervene early in the socialisation process to make up for the deprivation
            • Examples: Educational Priority Areas, Educational Action Zones and Sure Start
        • The myth of cultural deprivation?
          • Keddie
            • Cultural deprivation is a myth, it is a victim blaming explanation. She dismisses the idea that failure can be blamed on a culturally deprived background. A child cant be deprived of its own culture working class children are culturally different not deprived
    • Material Deprivation
      • Housing
        • Direct affects
          • Overcrowding could mean less room for educational activities, nowhere to do homework, disturbed sleep from sharing beds or rooms
        • Indirect affects
          • Children in a crowded house could have a greater risk of an accident. Cold or damp housing could lead to ill health and such problems could lead to time of school
      • Diet and Health
        • Howard
          • Young people from poorer homes have lower intake of energy, vitamins  and minerals. Poor nutrition affects health  which could result in more absences from school
      • Financial support and the costs of education
        • Lack of financial support means that children from poor families have to do without equipment and experiences
          • Due to parents not being able to afford items the child might have to have 'hand-me-downs' or cheaper options which could lead to them being bullied by their peers
            • Lack of funds might mean that pupils have to get a part time job which could distract them from their education. Also finical support to those staying in education post 16 has now been abolished meaning many don't continue their study's
      • Fear of Debt
        • Going to university usually involves getting into debt to cover the costs, this may deter working class pupils from going to university
          • Callender and Jackson
            • The attitude to debt was important in deciding on whether to apply to university. The most debt adverse students (typically working class) were 5 times less likely to apply to univeristy
    • Cultural Capital
      • Bourdieu, three types of capital
        • Cultural Capital
          • Refers to the knowledge, attitudes, values, language and abilities of the middle class
            • He sees middle class as a type of capital as it gives them an advantage
              • They are more likely to develop intellectual interests and an understanding of what the education system requires for success
                • This gives the middle class and advantage in school where abilities and interests are valued and rewarded as the education systems favours the dominant middle class culture
                  • Working class pupils find that school devalues their culture as 'rough' and 'inferior.' Lack of cultural capital leads to exam failure. Many working class pupils also get the message that education isn't for them so they don't try
        • Educational and Economic Capital

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