Theory and Education

  • Created by: K.G99
  • Created on: 04-05-18 14:15
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  • Education and Theories
    • Functionalism
      • Durkheim
        • Solidarity: education teaches us the shared norms and values in society
          • it prepares us for life in wider society: we have to cooperate at school like we would in at work
        • specialist skills: Education teaches individuals the skills and knowledge they need to play a part in the division of labour
      • Parsons
        • Meritocracy: educations acts as a bridge between the family and wider society
          • in meritocracy, everyone is given equal opportunities  and individuals are rewarded through their own efforts and abilities
      • Davis and Moore: role allocation- inequaliries are needed in the education system so we can pick out who are the most talented
        • For example: it would be dangourous to have less able people doing jobs such as piolets and sergons. Not everyon is equal talented and we have to 'sort and shift' people to the right jobs
      • Evalutation
        • the education system doesn't teach specialist skills adequately
        • there's lots of evident to show equal opportunities in education doesn't exist
        • Marxist argue that education only benefits the ruling class
        • the New right argue that education doesn't properly  prepare young people for work
    • Marxism
      • see society and education as based on a class divide and capitalist exploitation
      • Althusser: the states consists of two elements or 'apparatus', both of witch keep the ruling class in power
        • Repressive state apparatus: maintain control though force and threatening behaviour though the police, courts and army
        • Ideological state apparatus: maintain power though controlling peoples ideas and values through the media, religion and education system
        • the education system reproduces inequality by failing each generation of the working class
          • the justify the inequaklity by producing a set of ideas that make the rulling class believe the inequlity is inevitable
      • Bowles and Gintis
        • Correspondence principles:  there are similarities between school and work. both have a hierarchy structure
          • these principles are taught through the 'hidden curriculum' though everyday work, pupils are forced to get used to and accept the hierarchy structure, competition and rewards
        • the education system is just one big myth making machine. Meritocracy only benefits privileged higher class pupils. its used to make the working class accept the inequalities
      • The Lads subculture: Wills looked at observations and unstructured interviews from this subculture . it was made up of 12 working class boys who were transitioning from school to work. they found school meaningless and boring  and dont believe in meritocracy
        • He notes that there are similarities between these boys and shop floor workers. they fit into the capitalist society well because they are accustom to boredom so they wont expect satisfaction from work and because they rebel at school they are guaranteed to end up in unskilled jobs
      • Evaluation
        • Feminists argue that Bowels and Gintis ignore the fact that schools also reproduce patriarchy
        • Davis and Moore argue that education produces diversity not inequality
    • The New Right
      • Chubb and Moe
        • state run schools in America have failed because it hasn't created equal opportunities and has failed disadvantaged students, it fails to produce children with skills needed for the economy
      • two roles for state
        • they impose the framework for education system, and  publish ofstead reports and league tables etc..
        • the state ensure a shared culture is taught in schools. by imposing a set curriculum it ensures pupiles are socialised into a single cultural heritage
      • Evaluation
        • Critics argue that the real cause of low educational standards is not state control but social inequalities and inadequate funding
        • Marxists argue that education dost impose shared cultural values, but imposes culture values from the dominant upper class and devalues the culture of the working class
  • Basic ideas
    • the state cant meet peoples needs. People are best left to meet their own needs through the free market
    • similarities between New right and Functionalism
      • they both believe that some people are more talented than others
      • both favour the education system working on meritocratic principles
      • Education should socialise pupils into shared norms and values
    • The New Right
      • Chubb and Moe
        • state run schools in America have failed because it hasn't created equal opportunities and has failed disadvantaged students, it fails to produce children with skills needed for the economy
      • two roles for state
        • they impose the framework for education system, and  publish ofstead reports and league tables etc..
        • the state ensure a shared culture is taught in schools. by imposing a set curriculum it ensures pupiles are socialised into a single cultural heritage
      • Evaluation
        • Critics argue that the real cause of low educational standards is not state control but social inequalities and inadequate funding
        • Marxists argue that education dost impose shared cultural values, but imposes culture values from the dominant upper class and devalues the culture of the working class
    • Difference between New right and functionalism
      • New right do NOT believe the current education system is meeting these goals because its is run by the state
      • Argue that sate education takes a 'one size fits all' approach and disregards local needs

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