Edexcel Music GCSE Set Works AOS 1 + 3

I couldnt fit all of the AOSs on here so I've just done1 + 3 :) hope it's kind of helpful :) the bubbles are colour code:

red: background/context

pink: texture

brown: rhythm

blue: structure

orange: melody

yellow: harmony/tonality

green: instrumental forces

View mindmap
  • Edexcel Music GCSE Set Works AOS 1+3
    • Area of Study 1 - Western Classical
      • Handel - "And the Glory of the Lord"
        • Baroque music (1600-1750). First performed in Dublin 1742.
          • Affection - mood or character
          • Continuo - provides harmonic structure, played by organ here
          • Terraced dynamics - clear contrasts between loud and soft
          • Mainly mix of poly and some homophonic textures
        • Handel (1685-1759) Famous for his operas. Born in Germany, moved to London. Worked for the Elector of Hanover who later became George I in 1714.
        • From "The Messiah" - an oratorio - and is the first chorus of the work.
          • Vocal work based on Bible so only performed in church. Features chorus, soloists and orchestra.
          • Main vocal pieces: Recitative, Aria, Chorus. Words in English
        • Chorus: SATB Strings: V1V2VlaCB Continuo plays cello line with figured bass
          • Strings support vocal lines by doubling (sometimes in octaves).
            • Bar 53  V1+2 with S+A
        • Instrumental introduction up to bar 10
        • Based on four vocal motifs with melodies contrasting throughout.
          • And the glory of the lord - based on A major triad, ascending stepwise movement at end
          • Shall be revealed - descending melismatic sequence. Two one-bar descending sequences.
          • And all flesh shall see it together - mainly conjunct with leap of 4th at beginning and end. Three statements - firm!
          • For the mouth of the lord hath spoken it - mainly dotted minims on pedal (I or V). Long notes emphasize conviction. Doubled with tenors and basses
          • Mostly syllabic word setting
            • Imitation used (bar 17 onward)
        • Coda - Adagio - Tutti
        • All major  - joyous affection
          • Diatonic - modulates only to relative keys (functional harmony)
            • Sudden modulation to B major bars 67-93 (uses V7c-I)
          • Mainly perfect/ imperfect cadences. Ends on plagal cadence.
            • Adagio: Plagal cadence in A major
          • Bars: 1-17 A major          17-32 modulates to  E                43-63 back to A               64-67 Mod to E              67-93 Sudden mod to B        94-102 Back to E           102-end Back to A
        • Texture varies - mainly contrapuntal/ polyphonic and homophonic.
          • One instance of monophony (bars 108-109)
          • Word painting in homophonic "together" (bars 59-62 in vocal parts)
          • Dynamic variation through buildup of texture
          • Homophony bars 33-38
        • Fast tempo and triple rhythm sets joyful affection
          • Hemiola used at end of intro - popular feature used in 3/4
          • Rhythm in melodies reflects natural speech rhythm
          • Dramatic pause before adagio. Adagio makes ending seem final
      • Mozart - 1st Mov. Symphony No. 40 in G minor
        • Classical era (1750-1830): balanced four bar phrase, homophonic texture, woodwind, more expression - lyrical - markings, contrasting moods within movements, clarient and piano, sonata form
          • Classical symphony: 3/4 movements (Fast/Slow/Minuet/Fast). First mov. in sonata form.
          • Mozart (1756-91) born in Austria. Wrote prolifically - Symphony No. 40 in 1788
        • Classical orchestra: Double WW (1 flute); only 2 horns (G and Bb); no perc; Strings.
          • Clarinet was a new instrument. Horns could only play open notes of harmonic series (limited to tonic and dominant)
        • Sonata form
          • Exposition - 1st subject (tonic), bridge (modulation), 2nd subject (new key - Bb maj) - codetta (v7). Repeats
            • Expos - 1st Sub in Gm; bridge in Bb (rel maj); 2nd sub also in Bb; codetta in Bb with V7c in Gm as last chord
              • 1st subject based on 2 note, falling motif (creates sad feeling); diatonic
                • Mainly homophonic, some polyphonic sections
                  • Orchestral crescendo - when added instruments create natural crescendo
                    • Themes shared across instruments
                      • Smooth sustained textures over rapid quaver movement
              • Bridge contrasts with major tonality, rising arpeggio figure and scales
                • 2nd subject more chromatic with falling semitones
                  • Syncopated rhythm in 2nd subject
                    • Allegro molto = fast
                      • Dramatic pause bar 43
                  • Development uses 1st motif with imitation and staccato counter melody
                    • Recap. uses same melodies but different orchestration (melody in bass, counter melody in violins).
                  • Chromaticism, characteristic of sadness
              • Basses establish key at beginning
              • Sequences used in expos. and devel.
          • Development  - develops themes or keys
            • Recapitulation- 1st subject, bridge (Eb briefly), 2nd subject, coda (tonic)
              • Recap. - 1st sub. in Gm; bridge modulates to Eb; 2nd sub in Gm; coda in gm with repeated perfect cadences at end.
            • Devel. - To remote key of F#, modulates through cycle of 5ths; long dom. pedal notes
              • Use of unresolved pedal notes in development
      • Chopin - Piano Prelude No. 15 in D flat major
        • Published in 1839, standalone short composition or introductory piece.
        • Romantic era: Longer, developed melody lines; freedom in form and structure; complex chords and harmonies; chromatic harmony; dynamic variation; technically demanding.
          • Chopin (1810-1849), child prodigy, moved from Warsaw to Paris, lonely, aloof - had difficult relationship with writer George Sand. Wrote preludes in Majorca.
          • Ternary form - ABA (abaccda) with a short coda
            • A - Db Major, B - C# Minor, C - Db Major
              • A: Perfect cadences at the end of phrases, Ab implied (9-13), Bbm (12-18); end with impefect cadence.
                • B: Bar 40 ff climax (E, G#m, C#m) repeated; 64-67 perfect cadences; 71 F#m, 72 C#m.
                  • C: Melody repeated from A, extended perfect cadence (V, I, V, V, I)
                    • Mainly diatonic harmony
                      • Long, elegant melodies - Aa falling arpeggio, conjunct with dotted rhythms
                        • Ornaments used - based on turns (stylistic feature of romantic music) - also used to vary melody.
                        • In B section: contrast with plodding melody line in bass; loud climaxes; fuller texture towards end as RH takes over melody.
                          • C section contains shortened version of opening melody , coda contains short monophonic section and small part of B section melody
                          • In common time (4/4), slow tempo; repeated quavers continue throughout (nicknamed raindrop prelude); rhythmic decoration used (sextuplets etc); heavy use of rubato.
                    • Use of pedal notes (Inner and inverted as well as bass)
                    • Extensive dynamics, wide range - coda varies from f-pp in nine bars
                      • Textural crescendos used, subtle crescs and decrescs
                        • Melody dominated homophony throughout except 2 monophonic bars (82-83) in coda.
                          • Pedal adds variety and octave doubling brings out melody line, extended turns and ornaments add flourish and interest.
    • Area of Study 3
      • Jeff Buckley -Grace
        • Jeff Buckley (1966-1997) - son of jazz singer, studied in Hollywood, influenced by punk reggae and qawallii.
          • Eclectic style, unique voice.
        • Grace (a rock ballad) from album of the same name (1994)
          • Garry Lucas, co-writer/other guitarist
            • Drums, bass guitar, rhythm guitar, lead guitar (drop d tuning), lead singer
              • Andy Wallace - producer
                • Enhanced vocals, layering (violins etc), feedback, EQ, reverb, flanger, delay.
              • Verse, chorus structure
                • 3 bars of introduction, 4 bar link before first verse, prechorus, chorus, link, verse etc, bridge, instrumental, verse, outro.
                • Compound quadruple time (12/8), 64 dotted crotchets bpm
                  • Cross rhythms (bar 14)
                • Mainly syllabic word setting but lots of melisma.
                  • Melody starts low in Buckley's range but progresses to use full range - top e.
                    • Mainly conjunct, large amount of ornamentation
                      • Virtuosic vocalisations - unaccompanied vocals at end show qawalli influence (and monophony)
                        • monophony in last couple of bars- contrast against full polyphonic texture of outro.
                          • Mostly polyphonic (almost counterpoint in some parts) with a few instances of monophony
                            • Guitars semi-strumming (bars 4-8), using a plectrum (final link) and col legno in strings gives harsh sound and varies texture.
                  • Word painting - falling melodic line on words such as "falling" and "sorrow", glissandi also used. Imitated in string parts (bars 39-40)
                    • Equaliser used to balance out frequencies of vocals - harsh effect (eg bar 57)
                    • Introduction - Fm7, Gm7, Em - tonal ambiguity, no clear key established. Link  D and A7 - again not sticking to Em key signature - ascending bass riff until first verse.
                      • Verse establishes key of Em; uses Em, F and Eb alongside more complex harmony (B7/F#, Em/G) in the prechorus.
                        • Chorus - open strings on guitar create intentional discord; backing vocals double lead and whispered voice can be heard eerie). Dramatic harmony changes.
                          • Mandolin effect on guitar leading into second verse - more delay and slide used. In bridge string playing is more intense and more contrast between angelic backing vocals and lead.
                            • Build p to end uses more and more effects to build intensity and tension.
      • Miles Davis -All Blues
        • Miles Davis (1926-1991) - wanted to explore modal jazz - using modes or scales rather than chord sequences.
          • Introduction: Two groups of four bars - piano fill and then saxophone riff.
            • After introduction riff, two heads (solo, muted trumpet) with sax riff reintroduced between them.
              • Solos: Trumpet, Alto sax, tenor sax and (short) piano. Each solo has the intro riff played on the piano to introduce it.
                • After the solos, there is a similar structure to at the beginning: sax riff, head 3, riffs, head 4, riffs.
                  • The piece ends with a trumpet solo (muted) which fades out.
                    • The work is based on the twelve bar blues sequence with added extended chords.
                      • Based on G, modal - flattened 7ths
                        • Time signature of 6/4 - gives way to complex rhythms, syncopation and cross rhythms.
                        • natural dissonance caused by soloing and improvised melodies - often off chord.
                      • In the coda the repeated Gs reinforce the key/mode
                      • Intro: wash of sound created by piano fill and drum brushes. Soloists stand out easily - other instruments change dynamic accordingly.
                • Trumpet solos/head: Starts within a relatively limited range, broadens as the solos become more virtuosic and varied. Use of ornamentation: grace notes, fall offs and ghost notes. Phrases gradually become longer.
                  • Alto saxophone solo: scales and arpeggios, uses wide range.
                    • Tenor sax solo:Away from chord notes, virtuosic, uses full range.
                  • Piano solo: shorter, complex rhythms, riff incorporated  added chords and contrary motion triads, small range, wide dynamic range.
        • Cool jazz fusion, first performed in 1959.
        • Ensemble made up of some of the best jazz musicians around at the time: Miles Davis, Julian Adderley, John Coltrane, Bill Evans among others.
          • Band: Trumpet, Alto and Tenor Saxophones, Piano, Bass and Drums
      • Moby - Why Does my heart feel so bad?
        • From the album "play" 1999. Written by Richard Hall  - "Moby"
        • No live instruments played - all recorded and mixed electronically. Eclectic style - techno/dance.
        • Emu Performance piano module, Yamaha Synth, Akai 3200 sampler, Roland TR909 drum machine, Yamaha SY22+SY88, Roland Juno 106 synth.
        • Score - a transcription from the recording, loops built up in layers (gospel motifs).
          • 2 main ideas: verse (male recording), chorus (female recording).
            • The first verse constitutes a small section (A) repeated several times: starts with piano only, establishes the main chord sequence; the vocal sample is then added and repeated four times (new layers are added each time to thicken texture).
              • The chorus (B motifs) is made up of two main parts (x and y): The female voice takes over form the male and is then repeated; the same sample is then repeated twice again with a different chord sequence - changing the mood.
                • After the first chorus, the A motif is repeated twice, with delay and heavy EQ; after this the  B motif is repeated once with the first chord sequence and twice with the second. The end the piece, the male voice resumes with only static chords.
                  • The melody of the A motif is based on the arpeggios of the chord sequence (Am, Em, G, D)
                    • Both vocal samples are taken from a 1953 gospel choir recording.
                    • Both samples use a limited range, with A based on a hexatonic scale.
                    • Emotional response more important than pristine quality
                      • Electronic ghosting and background noise remain in the samples.
                    • The tonality is ambiguous although very diatonic. The First section is based on Dorian mode on A, whereas the chorus section would suggest C major.
                      • A - Falling harmonic sequence. B- Falling profile - emphasises sadness
                  • Texture is thickened with each repetition of the samples: new instruments added - creates intensity.
                • There is a constant temp throughout, with one bar of dramatic pause (at 2.56).
                  • A backbeat is used (on beats 2+4) throughout the song with the exceptions of the piano solo opening and the static chord accompaniment.
                  • Syncopation used in clave part and in piano opening
  • natural dissonance caused by soloing and improvised melodies - often off chord.


Samuel Richardson


A fantastic mindmap on AOS 1 - 3: Chopin, Jeff Buckley, Miles Davis, Moby, Handel, Mozart all included! A great level of detail is included and I love the colour coding. Don't be put of by the size of this mindmap, revise it in sections, or do one colour at a time. 



Dat is sik plez reply as i luv ur gd content

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