Economy and society

View mindmap
  • Economy and society
    • Economic
      • Rulers were keen to accelerate industrialisation to catch up with the west
      • Industry
        • Alexander II created Reutern Reforms (1862-78)
          • Encouraged foreign investment  and technical expertise
        • Alexander began building the trans-siberian railway 1891
        • Alexander III the Medele'ev tariff - raised gov revenues
        • Nicholas II - Witte's 'Great Spurt' (1893-1903)
        • Lenin's economic policies
          • Established State Capitalism - central control of the economy - Supreme Economic council (Dec 1917)
          • NEP - Denationalisation of small scale enterprise and return to private ownership
        • Stalin's centralised planning - 7 five year plans
      • Agriculture
        • Alexander II Emancipation of the Serfs (1861)
        • Alexander III Peasant Land Bank (1883)
        • Nicholas II -The Stolypin reforms 'Wager on the Strong'
        • Stalin's Collectivisation and Dekulakisation
          • Use of MTS
          • Collectivsation was voluntary under Lenin but forced under Stalin
        • Khrushchev's Virgin Lands Scheme 1954
    • Society
      • Reasons for change
        • Population Growth
          • 1858: 74 mil    1960: 212 mil
        • Social Structure
          • Nobility declined in numbers
          • Rise in middle- class, 2 mil by 1914
          • Large numbers of peasant Families moved to towns for employment
          • changed under communists - dominated by workers and dominated by hierarchical bureaucracy
        • Communist ideology gave greater freedom n authority to workers
        • Education
          • Primary schools rose from 23,000 in 1880 to 81,000 in 1914
          • Alexander III removed autonomy of universities
          • Alexander II gave Zemstva control and developed a new code for secondary schools which doubled number attending
          • 1930: attendance was compulsory til age of 12 and 18 mil attendents
          • 1932: 6.9 mil pupils at secondary schools and school fees scrapped
      • Rural conditions
        • Living conditions remained constant, variation between regions and classes
          • Standard housing was the 'Izba' (small wooden hut, cold, damp)
          • Stalin built housing blocks on his collectivised farms
          • Khrushchev built self-contained agro towns - private but poorly built
        • Working Conditions influenced mainly by the weather, soil and farming ability
          • Alexander II - Emancipation Edict was pivtoal
          • Stolypins wager on the strong  created a new class of peasant
          • War Communism - accused Kulaks of Grain hoarding
          • NEP - Kulaks seen as more higher class, paid higher taxes
          • Collectvisation and Dekulakisation
            • 1928 - 1930: 1 to 3 mil Kulak Families were deported
          • Virgin lands scheme put pressure in production
      • Urban conditions
        • Living Conditions
          • End of 19th century, only 15% of population lived in towns
          • 1914: over 1000 towns with overall 2 mil buildings
            • only 74  towns had access to electricity and gas
          • 1917: Decree on Land  gave private land to proletariat
          • Stalin reversed Lenin's changes: allocated space rather than rooms causing overcrowding
          • WW2 made 25 mil Russian homeless
          • 195564: communal living abandoned and housing co-operatives introduced
        • Working Conditions
          • Under the Tsars,workers were mainly in service industires or manufacturing -mpoor and dangerous conditions
            • 1882: child workers (under 12) were banned
            • 1896: 11 hour working day
            • 1903: Workers insurance scheme
            • 1914: Statutory holidays
          • Under Communists, conditions for the proletariat worsened
            • Extended hours and low pay
            • 1920: Rabkrin established (workers inspectorate)
            • 1932; 10-12 hour working day
            • 1939: working day went down to 7 hours

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all Russia - 19th and 20th century resources »