Russia 1855-1964 economy

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  • Economy
    • Reasons for economic change
      • Industrialisation to create a wealthier Russia, but consistent emphasis on heavy industry
      • catch up with the west
      • emulate the industrial revolutions that happened in the west in order to increase and maintain Russia's military status (at a time when global powers becoming more prevalent
    • Extent of economic change
      • TSARS: 1909-1913: industrial output increased by on average 7% per year and GNP by 3.5% per year. Matching the performance of other countries, but not Russia's main competitors- coal production only 10% of GB and GNP per capita only 20% of GB
      • COMMUNISTS: more substantial increase in the rate of growth of GNP, before 1940 average annual rate was 4-5%, this extra wealth came from coal, steel, oil and electricity. Growth rates higher than the west but extra wealth not being passed on to pop. Great human cost- 3.4 mill in labour camps
    • TSARS:
      • INDUSTRY:
        • Reuturn reforms (1862-78) encouraged FDI and foreign technological expertise
        • Trans- Siberian railway
        • The Medele'ev Tariff to raise govt revenue
        • Witte's great spurt (1893-1903)
      • AGRICULTURE:
        • Emancipation of the serfs 1861
        • The Peasant Land Bank 1883
        • The Stolypin Reforms (1906-11), Wager on the strong and land reforms
        • Kulakisation and commercial farming
    • COMMUNISTS:
      • INDUSTRY:
        • State capitalism- central control of the economy through the Supreme Economic Council (dec 1917(
        • War Communism- nationalisation, partial militarisation of labour and grain requsitioning
        • The NEP- denationalisation of small scale enterprise and a return to private ownership
        • Centralised planning- the 7 Five year plans under Stalin and Khrushchev, aim of economic autarky
      • AGRICULTURE:
        • Collectiviisation and dekulakisation (1929 onwards)- the Kolkhozy and Sovkhozy and the coming of the motor-tractor stations (MTS- responsible for loaning tractors to peasants, distributing seed, collecting grain and deciding what farmers could keep for their own consumption)
        • The Virgin Lands Scheme (1954 onwards)- by 1964 165 million acres had been given over to the production of wheat

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