Unit 4: Agriculture - Economic and Political Controls

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  • Economic and Political Controls
    • Marshal Plan - US Scheme after WWII to provide food to Europe
      • Europe didn't want to be dependent on another country so gave grants to farmers to increase production
        • Hedgerow removal to increase field size
        • Improved machinery and livestock
        • Drainage of wet fields
        • Liming to neutralize acidic soils
    • Reducing food surpluses caused by guaranteed markets
      • Quotas - limits on what they are allowed to produce
      • Farm diversification - encouraged to focus on alternative products e.g. biofuels, bees and activities e.g. camping, farm shops and pony trekking
      • Set aside - paid for taking out land and keeping it in a condition where it can be farmed again
      • Environmentally Sensitive Areas - paid to continue traditional farming techniques e.g. grazing chalk downs
      • Countryside Stewardship Scheme - grants to manage land for the environment or for public facilities
        • Wildlife corridors
        • Old meadows and pastures
        • Traditional walls, ditches and buildings
      • Environmental Stewardship Scheme - farmers paid for benefiting the environment (entry level awards points for good conditions)
        • No cutting of hedgerows during bird breeding season
        • Ditches only cleared once every 5 years
        • Stone walls protected from deterioration
        • No farming activities under tree canopies
    • World Trade System
      • Prices may be set by buyers rather than producers, forcing poorer people to be less sustainable


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