Economic Development Case Study - India

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  • Created by: Isobel183
  • Created on: 10-04-18 11:35
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  • Economic Development Case Study  "India"
    • Facts
      • Is a Newly Emerging Economy (NEE)
        • HDI = 0.61
      • Second largest population in the world (1.3 billion)
        • over 20% live in poverty
      • Adult literacy Rate is less than 70%
      • It exports services and manufactured goods all  over the world
    • Industrial Structure
      • Primary Industry
        • Employs 50% of working population
        • makes up only 17% of its GDP
        • EXAMPLE : Agriculture
      • Secondary Industry
        • employs 22% of the workforce
          • Provides people with reliable jobs
        • Secondary industries are stimulating economic development
        • EXAMPLE : Manufacturing
          • Selling manufactured goods overseas brings more income into India than raw materials
      • Tertiary & Quaternary Industry
        • employing 29% of workforce
          • Due to growth in IT firms and supplying services to foreign countries
        • Contributes 53% to India's GDP
          • They contribute the most
        • Tertiary EXAMPLE : Services
        • Quaternary EXAMPLE : Knowledge
    • Trans-National Corporations
      • Disadvantage
        • Some profits from TNCs leave India
          • EXAMPLE : Unilever is a Dutch - British Company
        • TNCs cause environmental problems
          • E.G. Mercury contaminated glass from a Unilever factory ended up in a waste dump instead of being disposed of safely
            • Mercury is a poisonous chemical that can lead to brain damage
        • TNCs mvoe around India to take advantage of local government incentives.
          • EXAMPLE : Unilever had been accused of closing factories in Mumbai once local tax breaks ended
      • Advantages
        • They provide employment
          • Unilever employs 16,000 people in India
        • More companies mean a greater income from tax for India
        • Some TNCs run programs to help development in India
          • Unilevers "project Shakti" helps poor woman in rural villages become entrepeneurs
            • There are 45,000 woman in the scheme
        • Unilever also works with charities to help run hygiene education programs
          • They provide sanitation to 115 million people in India
          • This improves health and increases sales
      • TNCs can help economic development by increasing the amount of manufacturing industry
    • International Trade
      • India is reducing barriers to trade
      • India is encouraging foreign direct investment
      • Trade with foreign businesses is increasing
      • India is working with its neighbours to build the TAPI pipeline
        • The pipeline will carry natural gas from Turkmenistan to India
    • AID
      • Short - Term AID
        • Helps with immediate disaster relief
        • The UK  sent £10,000,000, a rescue team and 1,200 tent to India after an earthquake in 2001
        • NGOs like Oxfam provided supplies and temporary buildings
        • Intended to help recipient countries cope with emergencies
      • Long- Term Aid
        • Intended to help the recipient countries funded to become more developed
          • Until 2015, India received over £200 million each year from UK to tackle poverty
        • India has had problems with corruption
          • Aid does not always reach the poorest people
      • Top - Down AID
        • When an organisation or government recieves the aid and decides where it should be spent
        • Can improves a country's economy
          • may not improve the quality of life
        • used on large infrastructure projects
          • such as dams or irrigation schemes
      • Bottom - Up Aid
        • Money is given directly to local people
          • E.g. To build or maintain a well
        • Has a large impact
          • Can Improve health, skills and income
    • Economic Development Impacts
      • Economic
        • More Jobs
          • Daily wage has increased since 2010
          • People can improve their their life
            • e.g. afford healthcare
          • Some Jobs in industry are dangerous or include poor conditions
            • This can reduce workers quality of life
            • e.g.coal mining
      • Environmental
        • India's energy consumption has increased
          • Use fossil fuels like coal and oil
            • Fuels releases pollution and greenhouses gases
        • Demand for resources can lead to the destruction of habitats
        • Increased income from economic development means people can afford to protect the environment

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