Economic and Social Change 1918-29

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  • Economic and Social change
    • Equality for women
      • 1918: women aged 30+ got the vote
        • 1928: Equal Franchise Act means vote for women 21+
      • 1918: 17 of 1,623 candidates were women, only 1 elected
        • First 3 MP's took their husband's seats
        • Margaret Atwood was the first female member of government in 2928
      • After the war, old practices returned
        • Released with two weeks wages
        • Could be sacked if they married
        • Massive wage gap
          • Released with two weeks wages
      • Single mothers shamed
        • Marie Stropes condemned by the church for releasing a birth control book
      • Less than 1% of women stayed in education past 18
        • Oxford only had 750 places for women
        • Cambridge did not award degrees to women until 1948
    • Industrial unrest and General strike
      • 1
        • Triple alliance formed
          • Miners, railwaymen, and transport workers.
        • A wave of strikes
          • 1910 onwards
          • Ended when the war began
        • Memberships of trade unions doubled in the war
          • Showed that people were unhappy
        • After the war, unrest escelated
          • Police strike in 1918 and 1919
          • Police act passed to stop police striking
            • Police strike in 1918 and 1919
        • 1920: Unions
          • 8 million trade union workers
          • 1921: 85 million working days lost to strikes
          • After 1921, it was risky to strike because of the risk of being fired
          • Employment rates low in main industry: textiles, shipbuilding, coalmining, and steel
        • 70,000 workers strike in Glasgow
          • 1919, demands for a 40 hour week
      • 2
        • Sankey Commission
          • Recommend that mines remain under government control
          • 1921, returned to previous owners
          • Prices droppped along with wages due to depression
        • Black Friday
          • Renewed in 1919
          • April 1921: Strike planned but railways and transport dropped out
          • Miners had wages cut
        • 1925
          • Coal prices drop again
          • Wages drop too, and working hours increase
          • Triple alliance stuck together to make Red Friday, in July
          • Baldwin made subsidy to maintain wages for 9 months
        • Samuel Commission
          • 1926, recommends No increase in working day, cut wages, modernizing coal pits
          • Trade Union Congress threatened total strike due to this
            • 1926, recommends No increase in working day, cut wages, modernizing coal pits
        • General Strike
          • 3rd may, printers refused to print daily mail derogatory words
          • 4th may, strike began. 3 million workers strike
          • Aggressive propaganda techniques employed by government
        • Volunteers
          • 226k people volunteered as special constables
          • General Strike
            • 3rd may, printers refused to print daily mail derogatory words
            • 4th may, strike began. 3 million workers strike
            • Aggressive propaganda techniques employed by government
          • Clashes between volunteers and strikers
            • Buses set on fire
            • Opposition to the strike grows
      • 3
        • Clashes between volunteers and strikers
          • Buses set on fire
          • Opposition to the strike grows
        • Trade Union Conference met with Downing Street
          • Miners asked to extend strike
            • Strike was called off
          • Strike was called off
        • Government winning propaganda war with TUC
          • Government had more cash
          • Little support of TUC outside the organisation
        • Mine workers after the strike
          • Miners carried on striking till novermber
          • Mine owners cut wages and lengthened hours
          • Union leaders dismissed
        • Trades Dispute Act
          • Sympathy strikes illegal
          • Civil servants can't join unions when they're TUC members

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