Ecologism: Sub-traditions

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  • Created by: Tori
  • Created on: 11-05-13 16:00
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  • Ecologism sub-traditions
    • Right-wing Ecologism
      • During the Nazi period, a form of facist ecologism emerged
        • Walter Darre
          • Worked for Hitler as minister of agriculture; 'peasant leader' role.
          • Introduced hereditary farm law which gave small/medium farm owners security in their holdings
          • Convinced life on land was the only truly fulfilling life and supported use of organic farming, with natural fertilisers such as manure
          • created chain of animal - soil - food - humans; sentiment matfched Steiner's (same chain)
          • however, limit is that militaristic nature of Nazis = incompatible with ecologism
        • 'back to land' movement
          • reacted against previous industrialisation in Germany
          • German Youth Movement -- 'back to land' ecologism was appealing to young and students
          • took to forests and mountains and escaped urban life NB: anarchism
      • the 'soft' right
        • Ecoconservatism
          • a Romantic and nostalgic attachment to a rural way of life which has been threatened by industrialisation
          • Wants to move BACK to pre-industrial rural society
          • realistic terms: support for conservation and protection of woodlands, historic buildings etc, Preserving Tradition
        • 'Green Capitalism' incorporates market based attitude and capitalism to environment
          • congestion charge, offset carbon footprint
          • Kyoto Protocol
          • Can apply on individual or company level
        • Companies now have profit-motive to be 'green', for consumers look for 'green credentials' in products/service
    • Eco-socialism
      • Popular in Germany with German Greens whose leaders were former members of left-wing political groups
      • Marxist socialism reject capitalism so share ecologist views that root of the problem is the industrial, profit-making capitalist society
        • Bahro links this to environmental crisis, linking industrial output to environmental damage
        • Human labour and natural world both exploited for profit making. Possibly requires a social revolution to overcome
      • CAPITALISM is environment's enemy
      • If wealth is owned then will be used to benefit everything and balance out
      • DICHOTOMY loyal to red or green?
        • Red first = unite to overthrow capitalism then splinter into separate green parties
        • Bahro places green first - ecological crisis must take precedence over class conflict
      • Deep ecologists reject the anthropocentricsocialist interpretations
      • Have been instances when socialism in action has harmed the environment i.e. Russia with Chernobyl nuclear disaster
    • Eco-Anarchism
      • Bookchin: 'social ecology' - ecological balance within society based on mutual respect for diversity = stability (state control does not maintain stability)
      • Kropotkin also anarcho-communist: ideals RE abolition of centralised state control blends well with localised, commune-like aims of ecologists
      • Suspicion towards authority, believing it corrupts; ecologists thinks it gives humans too much superiority
      • decentralised society means live close to nature, becoming self-sufficient in small community, developing an understanding of organic relationships and ecology
        • Bookchin: 'a more intelligent and more loving use of the environment'
      • Green Movement and Anarchism share methods: DIRECT ACTION and decentralisation
        • Greenpeace
      • TENSIONS: many within green movement see govt as vital to achieve aims (currently anyway)
        • collective action can only be organised effectively via govt
        • weakening govt may also lead to greater free-market approach, whereby capitalist forces would be unrestrained: so damaging the environment more
    • Eco-Feminism
      • Human Nature is androgynous (sexless) so gender roles don't actually exist - have been reconstructed by patriarchy
        • Patriarchy has unbalanced and distorted the instincts of men, separating from private world of home-making
        • Led to men thinking of themselves of 'masters' of both women and nature, wanting to control and destroy both
          • Links to socialist ecologism, where re-balance is required (balancing sexes rather than class)
      • Mary Daly: 'Gyn/Ecoology' 1979
        • women need to liberate themselves by aligning with 'female nature'
          • association between feminine qualities and 'Mother nature' - Earth is female/a Goddess. Also 'natural' childbearing and childrearing, or menstrual cycle
            • Traditional roles thus include cooperation, nurturing, reciprocity and softness: blend with ecologism
            • by embracing this feminine understanding of nature, the patriarchy can be overthrown and the natural world will be rebalanced and benefit from the new relationship
      • the destruction of the world and gender inequality: 'cultured men' rule over 'natural women' and subdue them
      • TENSIONS: some ecofeminists believe in essentialism: are fundamental differences b/t men and women that are incorrectable
    • NB: Ecologists reject term 'ideology' as too anthropocentric


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