ECM Revision Part 2.

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  • Every Child Matters
    • Implications for Schools
      • Children Act 2004. Schools will play an integral part in four key areas under ECM (Reid, 2005).
        • 1. Supporting parents and carers.
        • 2. Focus on early intervention & effective protection.
        • 3. Increasing accountability & integration at local, regional, and national level.
        • 4. Reforming the workplace.
      • DCSF, 2007 - The Children's Plan: Building Brighter Futures.
        • School will be viewed as engines for social justice and a 'Better Future'.
      • Education & Inspections Act (2006).
        • Schools have to promote the well-being and safeguarding of children, whilst increasing community cohesion.
          • This view has split the debate. Some view it as increasing bureaucracy, which could in a sense hinder schools
            • Others viewed it as an opportunity to 'strengthen partnerships between schools and children's services' (Hawker, in Sale 2006).
      • Prior to ECM, England & Wales had little knowledge regarding the extended schools programme in comparison to societies similar to themselves of Australia & USA.
        • The extended schools programme was not a new initiative. In fact similarities existed in the following:
          • Community schools of the 1970s (Midwinter 1973).
          • Village & College movement of the 1920s (Cummings et al., 2007).
          • The emergence of 'New Community Schools' from 1998 onwards in Scotland, which had similar focus towards: 'multi-agency working, and increased engagement' (Redford 2005).
        • Hardy (1996) argued in favour of the extended schools approach, as for schools to meet the complex needs of their students, schools & their partners need to realise & adopt a more holistic approach.
          • This view was supported by Kinder et al., 2003, whereby services don't have to act in isolation, they should be cohesive in nature, through the ideology of 'extended schools'.
        • The extended schools programme & ECM
          • Despite the extended schools programme being viewed as an 'extension of community services', it did focus on the 'community being at the heart of one's schooling', which was central in the ECM policy.
          • The role of the school
            • Despite the concerns surrounding: resources, expectations & the role/function of the school (mentioned by Raffo & Cummings et al., 2007); the Department for Education & Skills found there were numerous positives from this approach. Such benefits included:
              • Increased after school activities and an increased number of primary schools liaising with non-teaching professionals (nurses, and care workers) - Cummings et al., 2006.
                • In said report it is stated that: 'Full-Service Extended Schools (FSESs) can have positive impacts on those involved; such as, increased attainment, reduced exclusion rates and increase intakes' (Cummings et al., 2006, ii).
                • Additionally, evidence also exists whereby some schools have struggled to implement the long term reforms required by the ECM agenda in conjunction with addressing immediate attainment issues.
                  • These issues have been expressed by teachers through the following: funding, resources & workload, as well increased responsibility and longer schooldays (Ulman et al., 2006).
                    • Research conducted in response to the concerns raised by Ulman et al., (2006), identified the following areas of focus/needing improvement:
                      • Specialised training
                        • Even though there was an identifiable increase in TA's amongst schools, most of them were not specialised, and lacked experience in 'counselling'.
                      • Multi-agency working
                        • Non-effective information exchange.
                        • Difference in understanding of how said agencies operated.
                      • School staff workload
                        • Current levels of staffing in a number of underfunded primary schools would benefit from ECM trained members, and increased levels of present teaching staff too.
                        • Despite increasing the number of TA's throughout maintained schools in Britain (DfES, 2007), which has eased teacher workload, the study suggests that more needs to be done to deal with the increased workload if ECM is to be implemented effectively.
  • The role of the school
    • Despite the concerns surrounding: resources, expectations & the role/function of the school (mentioned by Raffo & Cummings et al., 2007); the Department for Education & Skills found there were numerous positives from this approach. Such benefits included:
      • Increased after school activities and an increased number of primary schools liaising with non-teaching professionals (nurses, and care workers) - Cummings et al., 2006.
        • In said report it is stated that: 'Full-Service Extended Schools (FSESs) can have positive impacts on those involved; such as, increased attainment, reduced exclusion rates and increase intakes' (Cummings et al., 2006, ii).
        • Additionally, evidence also exists whereby some schools have struggled to implement the long term reforms required by the ECM agenda in conjunction with addressing immediate attainment issues.
          • These issues have been expressed by teachers through the following: funding, resources & workload, as well increased responsibility and longer schooldays (Ulman et al., 2006).
            • Research conducted in response to the concerns raised by Ulman et al., (2006), identified the following areas of focus/needing improvement:
              • Specialised training
                • Even though there was an identifiable increase in TA's amongst schools, most of them were not specialised, and lacked experience in 'counselling'.
              • Multi-agency working
                • Non-effective information exchange.
                • Difference in understanding of how said agencies operated.
              • School staff workload
                • Current levels of staffing in a number of underfunded primary schools would benefit from ECM trained members, and increased levels of present teaching staff too.
                • Despite increasing the number of TA's throughout maintained schools in Britain (DfES, 2007), which has eased teacher workload, the study suggests that more needs to be done to deal with the increased workload if ECM is to be implemented effectively.
  • Executive summary
    • The Children's Plan - Building brighter futures.
      • 5 principles:
        • 1. Government does not bring up children – parents do – so government needs to do more to back parents and families
        • 2. All children have the potential to succeed and should go as far as their talents can take them
        • 3. Children and young people need to enjoy their childhood as well as grow up prepared for adult life
        • 4. Services need to be shaped by and responsive to children, young people and families, not designed around professional boundaries
        • 5. It is always better to prevent failure than tackle a crisis later
      • Chapter 1: Happy & healthy
        • Secure the wellbeing and health of children and young people
        • Chapter 2: Safe & Sound
          • Safeguard the young and vulnerable
          • Chapter 3: Excellence & equity
            • Individual progress to achieve world class standards and close the gap in educational achievement for disadvantaged children
            • Chapter 4: Leadership and collaboration
              • System reform to achieve world class standards and close the gap in educational achievement for disadvantaged children
              • Chapter 5: Staying on
                • Ensure young people are participating and achieving their potential to 18 and beyond
                • Chapter 6: On the right track
                  • Keep children and young people on the path to success
                  • Chapter 7: Making it happen
                    • Vision for 21st century children’s services
                      • Locating services under one roof in the places people visit frequently, they are more likely to find the help they need. And by investing in all of those who work with children, and by building capacity to work across professional boundaries we can ensure that joining up services is not just about providing a safety net for the vulnerable – it is about unlocking the potential of every child.
    • Over the last ten years, the Children's Plan has led to substantial progress to tackle under investment and low aspirations in early years, schools, colleges and other services for children. Since 1997:
      • The number of registered childcare places has more than doubled so that there is now a registered childcare place for 1 in every 4 children under 8
        • The number of children in relative poverty has fallen by 600,000 and teenage pregnancy rates are at their lowest level for 20 years
          • Standards in schools have risen across the board, with results at ages 11, 14, 16 and 19 now at or about their highest ever levels, far fewer weak or failing schools, and more young people than ever before going on to university
  • Chapter 7: Making it happen
    • Vision for 21st century children’s services
      • Locating services under one roof in the places people visit frequently, they are more likely to find the help they need. And by investing in all of those who work with children, and by building capacity to work across professional boundaries we can ensure that joining up services is not just about providing a safety net for the vulnerable – it is about unlocking the potential of every child.

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