Eating Behaviour.

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • Eating Behaviour.
    • Attitudes to Food.
      • Social Learning
        • Parental Modelling.
          • Brown and Ogden saw that there were consistent correlations between parents and children in terms of snacking and body dissatisfaction.
        • Media Effects.
          • MacIntyre et al found the media has both an impact on what they eat but also their attitude towards food.
        • A02
          • Meyer and Gast found a positive correlation between peer influence and disorder eating  in children ages 10-12.
          • It is not clear that our food preferences come mostly from media, as our ancestors may have preferred food according to the evolutionary approach.
      • Cultural Influences
        • Ethnicity
          • Ball and Kenardy found that the longer non-Australian women lived there, the more they reported similar behaviours of those of nationality.
        • Social Class
          • Dornbush et al found that higher class American women had a higher desire to be thin than their lower-class counterparts were.
        • A02
          • Mumford et al found the incidence of bulimia was greater among Asian school girls among their white colleagues.
          • Story et al found that higher lcass was associated with greater satisfaction with weight and had lower rates of weight control.
      • Mood and Eating Behaviour
        • Binge Eating
          • Davis et al saw that an hour before a binge, bulimics had a negative mood more so than when they had a meal.
        • Comfort Eating.
          • Garg et al found that having a positive mood encourages you to eat healthy foods, but a negative one makes you crave junk food.
        • A02
          • It is unclear how binge eating works, as it is reported that a binge causes a low mood after.
          • Chocolate has been seen as the ultimate comfort food but Parker et al said chocolate is more likely to prolong the negative mood.
    • Explaination for Success and Failure of Dieting.
      • Restraint Theory
        • Herman and Mack created this theory which states that attempting to eat actually increases the likelihood of overeating.
        • Klegas et al found that 89% of the UK female population have restricted their food intake at some point.
        • The Boundary Model
          • Created by Herman and Polivy.
          • According to the model, hunger keeps intake of food above a minimum level and satiety works to keep intake below a maximum level.
        • A02
          • Ogden et al said that although obesity may not necessarily be caused by overeating, overeating may be a consequence of obesity is restraint is recommended as a treatment.
          • Ogden also pointed out that if trying not to eat results in overeating, then how to anorexics stay thin?
      • The Role of Denial.
        • Wegner et al found that when asked to not think about something, people thought about it more.
        • The Theory of Ironic Processes suggests that the more we suppress thoughts of food, the more we want it.
        • This means that we are more likely o overeat on those foods.
        • A02
          • Higgins and Gray found that participation in anti-dieting programmes was associated with improvements with eating behaviour and wellbeing.
      • Detail.
        • Redden et al said it has been suggested that detail is the key to a successful diet.
        • Jelly bean experiment showed that those who didn't see general information with the bean got bored of eating it faster than those who had information.
        • Therefore those who put detail in their diet and like the foods, will be more likely to repeat a pleasant experience.
        • A02
          • Soetans et al showed that restrained eaters who tend to overeat try to suppress thoughts about food more often but then think more about food afterwards.
          • Wegner said that although his theory showed results, they were not overwhelming, and no further research has supported it.
    • Neural Mechanisms
      • Homeostasis
        • This involves mechanisms that both detect and correct the state of our internal environment.
        • A02
          • For a hunger mechanism to be adaptive, it must both anticipate and prevent glucose levels from dropping, yet homeostasis still allows it to drop.
      • Hypothalamus'
        • Lateral
          • This is the part of the brain that detects a decline in glucose and acts as the 'on' switch for eating.
          • Damage to the LH can cause apahgia, which is the absence of eating.
          • A study on rats using the Neuropeptide (NPY) neurotransmitter showed that by injecting NPY into the hypothalamus , they began feeding even when full.
          • A02
            • For the LH to be damaged, it would also cause deficits to thirst and sex, so it does not just affect hunger. The LH is not the controlling centre of when to eat, there are other parts of the brain that assist.
            • NPY has been questioned as rats that did not have the chemical had no difference to their feeding behaviour.
        • Ventromedial
          • This part of the brain detects a rise in glucose levels which then 'switches off' eating.
          • If damaged this can cause hyperphagia which can cause overeating.
          • Gold saw that the paraventricular nucleus can be damged by the VMH, which would then cause cravings, thus overeating occurs.
          • A02
            • Gold found that lesions to the brain did not alone cause hyperphagia and only caused overeating. Yet nobody maganged to duplicate Gold's findings.
      • Neural control of cognitive factors
        • The amygdala is thought to be the selection of food based on previous experience.
        • The inferior prefrontal cortex receives messages that decide on what food to eat, based on odours and previous experience.
        • A02
          • Kluver-Bucy syndrome sufferers often have indiscriminate eating, increased appetite and attempts to eat non-food items. This explains the damage to both the parts of the neural controls.
          • Zald and Pardo provided research support by showing unpleasant smelling food increases the amygdala through blood flow.
    • Evolutionary Explanations of food preference.
      • EEA
        • The environment of evolutionary adaptation is the environment our species evolved in.
        • This states that our ancestors were most likely hunter-gatherers
      • Early diets
        • Their diets included a lot of animals and plants. Their preference was fatty foods as they were high in energy.
        • As we often like fatty foods and junk food, this explains where out preference comes from.
        • A02
          • Gibson and Wardle showed that children preferred the high calorie fruit and veg to the low ones.
      • Preference for meat.
        • Human ancestors began to incorporate meat into their diets as there was a decline in plants.
        • Meat provided a lot of nutrients and Milton et al claims that ancestors could not have been vegetarians.
        • A02
          • Cordain et al said that early humans got most of their calories from sources other than saturated animal fats, so they could have been vegetarian,
      • Taste Aversion
        • Bait shyness was discovered by Garcia et al who found if rats were made ill by a food, they didn't eat it again.
        • Taster aversion adaptation helped our ancestors survive as they didn't keep becoming ill.
        • The Medicine Effect was created by Garcia et al who said animals can learn that if a food makes them better, they will eat it more.
        • A02
          • Seligman claimed that certain species have more of a preparedness, meaning they will be able to survive.
    • Psychological Explanations of Anorexia Nervosa
      • Cultural ideals and the media
        • Cultural Ideals
          • Gregory et al found that Western standards of attractiveness are important to developing AN.
          • A02
            • Hoek et al found that in a country where being bigger was acceptable, barely anyone with AN was admitted to hospital
        • Media Influences
          • Jones and Buckingham found that the media is a huge part of why AN is developed.
          • A02
            • Becker et al found that once westernised ideals were introduced, girls wanted to be thinner.
      • Ethnicity and peer influences.
        • Ethnicity
          • Pollack found that in some cultures, positivity is linked with larger body sizes.
          • A02
            • Roberts et al found that An was typically only white people had high incidences of AN, but only adolescents.
        • Peer influence.
          • Eisenburg et al found that unhealthy eating behaviour between friends was linked to weight control behaviours
          • A02
            • Lunde et al found a positive correlation between boys and girls being teased and BMI.
      • Personality
        • Perfectionism.
          • This is a common trait in an AN sufferer according to Strober et al.
          • A02
            • Nilsson et al expresses the important of perfectionism in the duration of AN.
        • Implusiveness
          • Butler and Montgomery say that in a control group, they saw people respond more rapidly to a performance task showing impulsiveness.
      • IDA
        • RWA says in France, the media has to use all size models in fashion houses.
    • Biological Explanations of Anorexia Nervosa.
      • Neurotransmitters
        • Serotonin is higher in women that are recovering from binge-eating, showing that disrupted serotonin levels can lead to high anxiety = AN (Bailer et al)
          • A02
            • Kaye et al saw that drugs that alter levels of brain serotonin are ineffective for AN sufferers.
        • Dopamine is high in women who have AN suggesting that it changes when we are rewarded. (Kaye et al)
          • A02
            • Levels of dopamine appear to be linked to body weight but this is not clear whether it is a cause or consequence yet.
      • Neurodevelopment.
        • Lindberg and Hjern found a significant link between premature birth and development of AN.
          • A02
            • Favaro et al found d that AN was significantly linked to birth complications and early eating difficulties.
        • Eagles et al found that An sufferers are more likely to be born in spring as they will have had a winter pregnancy.
          • A02
            • Eagles et al found that AN individuals tend to be later in birth order compared to healthy individuals, due to the mother being exposed to more illnesses from the siblings.
      • Evolutionary Explanations.
        • Surbey et al suggests that adolescent girls' desire  to control their weight represents an evoluntionary adaptation when girls delayed the onset of sexual maturation in response to poor reproductive success.
          • A02
            • This is supported by the fact girls stop menstruating when anorexic, so they cant successfully reproduce.
        • Guisinger et al suggest that the characteristics of an AN sufferer are linked to those that reflect the famine conditions our ancestors experienced. (Adapted to flee hypothesis)
          • A02
            • A lot AN sufferers who want o get better can't, simply because it is suggested there is biological urge to avoid food, suggesting that the famine traits from our ancestors are not true.

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Eating Behaviour resources »