Eating behaviour (food)

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  • Created by: Maddie
  • Created on: 28-12-13 09:28
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  • Eating Behaviour
    • Explanations of attitudes to food
      • Cultural Influences
        • Ethnicity
          • Eating disorders and concerns are more common in white women than Asian or Black women (Powell and Khan)
        • Social class
          • Dieting and eating disorders are more likely in higher-classed individuals (Dornbusch et al)
      • Mood and eating behaviour
        • Davis et al found that an hour before binge eating, individuals were in a depressed mood
        • Garg et al found that people eat more unhealthy foods when placed in front of a depressing film
      • Synoptic links
        • Gender bias- tendency to focus on only women
        • Cultural differences- may influence attitude to food
    • The impact of dieting
      • Restraint theory
        • Attempting not to eat increases to probability of overeating
        • Women in diet conditions ate more than women in non diet conditions (Wardle and Beale)
        • Boundary Model (Herman and Polivy)
          • A dieter must stop eating before they reach satiety as their gap between hunger and satiety is larger than the average person
      • The role of denial
        • Theory of ironic processes- denial of food thoughts may backfire
        • Attempt to suppress thoughts of food makes them more prominent (Soetens et al)
      • Detail
        • Successful dieting by focusing on specific details of each meal
          • Jelly bean experiment- participants focused on flavours rather than number of jelly beans
      • Synoptic links
        • Free will or determinism?- high levels of LPL mean greater weight gain
        • Asian adults more prone to obesity than Europeans
        • Anecdotal evidence- less trustworthy compared to scientific studies
    • Role of neural mechanisms
      • Homeostasis
        • The body's tendency to maintain a constant internal environment
        • Decline in blood glucose levels activates LH
        • Rise in blood glucose levels activates VMH
      • Lateral hypothalamus (LH) and ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH)
        • Change to LH leads to aphagia, stimulation to eating behaviour
          • Damage to LH doesn't only affect feeding behaviour
        • NPY 'turns on eating' if injected into LH
        • Damage to VHM causes animals to overeat (hyperphagia)
        • Stimulation of VMH inhibits feeding
        • Zhang's ob/ob mice-leptin
      • Neural control of cognitive factors
        • Amygdala- selection of foods on basis of food preference
        • Inferior frontal cortex- damage decreases eating because of decreased sensory responses
        • Kluver-Bucy syndrome- damage to brain areas lead to increased appetite and indiscriminate eating
        • Zald and Pardo-physiological evidence to support role in emotional processing of olfactory stimuli
      • Synoptic links
        • Evolutionary approach- primary stimulus for hunger and eating is food's positive incentive-value.
        • Body produces ghrelin in response to stress; also boosts appetite
        • Real-world application- NPY also produed by abdominal fat, which leads to more eating and more fat
    • Evolutionary explanations of food preference
      • The EEA
        • Environment in which human beings first emerged as separate species
        • Natural selection favoured adaptations that promoted survival in EEA
      • Early diets
        • Fatty foods adaptive for energy resources
        • Evolved preference for foods rich in calories
      • Preferences for meat
        • Fossil evidence suggests early diet mainly animal-based foods
        • Unlikely early humans would have had enough energy from meat free diet
      • Taste Aversion
        • Animals who became ill after eating developed an aversion to that food
        • Development of taste aversion helped ancestors to survive
        • Taste aversions difficult to shift once learned
        • Medicine effect- animals learn preference for foods that make them healthier
      • Commentary
        • Importance of calorie-rich foods demonstrated in studies of young children
        • Anthropological evidence dismisses suggestion that ancestors were vegetarian
        • Some food preferences have not been a product of evolution
        • Taste aversion explained by concept of biological preparedness
        • Application- understanding of taste aversion acquired during chemotherapy
      • Synoptic links
        • Preference for fatty foods reflected in success of fast food restaurants
        • Comparative evidence- chimps in Gombe National park
        • Evolved preferencs are modified by cultural factors
    • Obesity
      • Obesity often runs in families
        • Stunkard et al estimated from studies of 25,000 pairs of twins that male identical twins reared apart had a BMI estimated at 70% heritable for males and 66% for females.
      • Adoptive parents and children do not share genetic material but share a common environment. If obesity is genetic then there should be more similarity with biological than adoptive parents.
        • Genetic influences have an important role in determining adult weight, whereas environment seems to have little effect
      • Storing lots of fat in times of plenty improves survival chances in times of famine.
      • The environment was much more unpredictable for our ancestors, leading to uncertainties about food supply
        • A useful strategy would be to eat as much as possible whenever they could so that if famine arrived then they would have stored fat to see them through
      • Chamala et al
        • Modern Pima Indians show unusally high levels of obesity
          • They suggested that this provided an evolutionary advantage for their ancestors
            • The Pima would have lived in harsh barren desert-like conditions.
            • Their genes provided them with the maximum advantage from any food they found.
      • BMI
        • 18.5- Underweight
        • Weight (kg) divided by height (metres squared)
        • 25- Overweight
        • 30- Obese
        • 40- Morbidly Obese

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