Earthquake - Japan 2011

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  • Earthquake - Japan, March 11th 2011
    • Cause
      • Result of subduction created by Pacific plate sinking underneath North American plate
    • Effects
      • Secondary
        • 50 million people affected, 20,000 killed, 3380 injured
        • Progress made in clearing rubble and most homeless have been rehoused
        • 125,000 homes destroyed and extensive damage to roads and railways
        • Cost estimated at £150billion = most expensive natural disaster in history
        • Stock markets fell
        • 500,000 homeless
        • 200,000 people evacuated when nuclear power plant exploded, 1000 living in evacuation centres
        • Concern about radioactive release
    • Why were effects so bad?
      • Nature of hazard
        • Shallow, powerful EQ
        • Magnitude 9
        • Occurred at 2pm
        • EQ generated wave heights of over 45m
      • Country's background
        • High population density - 40 million affected
        • Power station, nuclear plant near to epicentre
        • Flat relief in Sendai province
      • 40% of Japan's coast protected by 10m high walls
      • Levels of prep
        • Quick prep
        • EQ proofed buildings
        • Only 10% of casualties were result of EQ itself
        • Seismic + water level stations
        • 'EQ drills'
    • Responses
      • Immediate
        • 80,000 people from Japan Self-Defence Force working night and day
        • 100.000 military brought in
        • People followed training during EQ
        • 300,000 people accommodated in 2200 evacuation shelters
      • Long term
        • After 1 year, 50% of rubble cleared, 50,000 homes rebuilt
        • Government estimates that rebuilding will take 5 years, put aside £185billion for reconstruction
        • Efforts to contain nuclear meltdown

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