EARTHQUAKE CASE STUDIES

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  • EARTHQUAKE CASE STUDIES
    • HAITI
      • Struggled with problems ranging from near-constant political upheaval, health crises, severe environmental degradation and an annual barrage of hurricanes.
        • Used to be colonised and as a result debts had to be paid off resulting in very little investment into infrastructure.
          • Ø  GDP  -   $1,200 per person, 207th in the world Ø  GDP growth rate 2010 – MINUS 5.6%
            • Ø  Population -    9.7 Million Ø  Population below poverty line -   80% Ø  70% of population live on less than $2 a day.
      • WHEN?
        • Haiti earthquake,  January 12th at 4:53pm, 2010
      • WHERE?
        • Ø  Haiti sits between the Caribbean and North American plates Ø  The inner islands, Haiti included, are known as the Leeward Islands and are less volcanically active but do suffer from Earthquakes. 
          • Ø  Haiti itself is on a strike slip fault that runs off a destructive plate margin to the north of the Island of Hispaniola, which Haiti shares with the Dominican Republic.  
            • North American Plate sliding past the Caribbean Plate at a conservative plate margin. Friction builds up until one plate suddenly “pings” back up
              • fault had been “locked” for 250years, gathering stress
      • MAGNITUDE
        • Ø  The Haiti earthquake centred just 10 miles southwest of the capital city, Port au Prince
          • The event measured 7.0 on the Richter Magnitude scale
            • 200 years since the last major earthquake
      • IMPACT
        • 220,000-250,000 people estimated to have died
          • Ø  300,000+ people were injured
            • Ø  4,000 schools were damaged or destroyed
              • Over 188,383 houses were badly damaged and 105,000 were destroyed by the earthquake 
                • a half million people were living in camps including over 100,000 at critical risk from storms and flooding
                  • outbreak of cholera in October 2010. By July 2011 5,899 had died as a result of the outbreak
                    • Port-au-Prince was flattened in less than 60seconds
        • Ø  85% of the rural population practise some agriculture which accounts for 26% of Haiti’s economic output. This makes agriculture the country’s largest employer
          • The destruction of roads, bridges, fishing ports and infrastructure had a serious effect on food production
            • Haiti relied heavily on tourism to the island but the quake resulted in numbers declining to go the other Caribbean islands.
        • Ø  Corals were pushed upwards to the north with farmland collapsing into the sea to the south.
          • Ø  Lateral spreading resulted in ground slumping  or falling away
            • Loss of habitat - make up number of dead animals
      • RESPONSE
        • IMMEDIATE
          • Ø  UNs relief appeal totalled $1.4 billion 
            • UK public donated an extraordinary £107m - the second highest total 
              • Ø  Water- bottled water and purification tablets were distributed 
                • UN world Food Programme provided basic food necessities. Farmers were given immediate support before the spring planting season
        • LONG TERM
          • Improving the water supply of 340,000 people
            • Providing free medical care to 39,000 people
              • Providing improved shelter for 34,000 people
                • Giving information to 116,000 people about preparing for future disasters
                  • Venezuela has cancelled all Haiti debt and has promised to supply oil free of charge until the country has recovered from the disaster.
                    • Hospitals, schools and government buildings were rebuilt to new life saving building codes.
                      • Local people were employed as construction workers
                        • some economic activities were moved away from Port-au-Prince to less earthquake prone areas.
      • MONITORING
        • Ø  The Haitian government promised to invest in earthquake monitoring
          • However this promise was never realised.
    • CHRISTCHURCH
      • WHERE?
        • New Zealand is located in the Pacific Ocean in the continent of Oceania.  It is South East of Australia and consists of a North and South Island
          • Ø  lies on the well known Pacific “Ring of Fire”.
            • Ø  The Pacific Plate is being subducted beneath the Indo-Australian Plate off the east coast of the North Island. The subduction zone terminated about 275km NE of Christchurch.
              • Then the direction of the margin changes and there is a fault zone running from NE to SW across the centre of the South Island through the Southern Alps
        • earthquake occurred on a conservative plate margin where the Pacific Plate slid past the Australian Plate in the opposite direction.  It was technically an aftershock from a larger earthquake in 2010 but the impacts were more severe. 
      • WHEN?
        • 12:51pm on Tuesday 22 February 2011
      • City has strong growth in Professional and Engineering Services, Financial Services, Construction, and Healthcare; between 2000 and 2010 these industries grew in employment by 42%. 
        • Ø  Life expectancy: 79 years (men), 83 years (women) (UN) Ø  Main exports: Wool, food and dairy products, wood and paper products      Ø  GNI per capita: US $29,140 (World Bank, 2010)
          • Access to clean water: 100% of people have access to clean water
      • Magnitude
        • 6.3 magnitude
          • Ø  The country's deadliest in 80 years.
      • IMPACT
        • Ø  185 People killed
          • . 115 people died when the six-storey Canterbury Television (CTV) building in Madras Street collapsed
            • Ø  6 died in two city buses (red 702 bus) crushed by crumbling walls. 
              • Ø  80% of the city had no electricity    Ø  Hundreds of kilometres of water and sewage pipes were damaged
                • Ø  10,000 houses demolished
        • Ø  Over half of the buildings in the central business district were demolished.
          • Hotel attendance fell to 40,000 tourists a year from 100,000
            • Ø  Games in the Rugby World Cup cancelled and moved
              • employment in the Canterbury region decreased by 26,800 (
                • New Zealand stock exchanged crashed by  340points.
                  • $30billion damage
        • Ø  Part (size of 20 football fields) of the country’s longest glacier  was broken off creating a large iceberg as it hit Lake Tasman creating Tsunami waves
          • Ø  shifted land, created liquefaction, created large gaps in the ground etc. It ruined houses and farm land
            • Ø  Silt washed into local river beds, making it not possible for recreation sailing. 
      • RESPONSE
        • IMMEDIATE
          • Ø  In the seconds, hours and days after the earthquake rescue and response was offered by ordinary people as well as the emergency services on duty
            • The Canterbury Art Gallery ,which had been designed to be earthquake proof survived and, was turned into a Emergency Response centre
              • Ø  300 Australian police were flown in brining the number of the police to 1200
                • MAPPING OF CHRISTCHURCH
        • LONG TERM
          • The Red Cross provided grants to families with children under 5 years of age who were living in significantly damaged homes
            • $898 million in building claims
              • Ø  Roads and houses were cleared of silt from liquefaction by August and 80% of roads/50% of footpaths were repaired
                • Ø  Downtown, a temporary shopping centre in brightly coloured shipping containers. Called BOX PARK
  • CHRISTCHURCH
    • WHERE?
      • New Zealand is located in the Pacific Ocean in the continent of Oceania.  It is South East of Australia and consists of a North and South Island
        • Ø  lies on the well known Pacific “Ring of Fire”.
          • Ø  The Pacific Plate is being subducted beneath the Indo-Australian Plate off the east coast of the North Island. The subduction zone terminated about 275km NE of Christchurch.
            • Then the direction of the margin changes and there is a fault zone running from NE to SW across the centre of the South Island through the Southern Alps
      • earthquake occurred on a conservative plate margin where the Pacific Plate slid past the Australian Plate in the opposite direction.  It was technically an aftershock from a larger earthquake in 2010 but the impacts were more severe. 
    • WHEN?
      • 12:51pm on Tuesday 22 February 2011
    • City has strong growth in Professional and Engineering Services, Financial Services, Construction, and Healthcare; between 2000 and 2010 these industries grew in employment by 42%. 
      • Ø  Life expectancy: 79 years (men), 83 years (women) (UN) Ø  Main exports: Wool, food and dairy products, wood and paper products      Ø  GNI per capita: US $29,140 (World Bank, 2010)
        • Access to clean water: 100% of people have access to clean water
    • Magnitude
      • 6.3 magnitude
        • Ø  The country's deadliest in 80 years.
    • IMPACT
      • Ø  185 People killed
        • . 115 people died when the six-storey Canterbury Television (CTV) building in Madras Street collapsed
          • Ø  6 died in two city buses (red 702 bus) crushed by crumbling walls. 
            • Ø  80% of the city had no electricity    Ø  Hundreds of kilometres of water and sewage pipes were damaged
              • Ø  10,000 houses demolished
      • Ø  Over half of the buildings in the central business district were demolished.
        • Hotel attendance fell to 40,000 tourists a year from 100,000
          • Ø  Games in the Rugby World Cup cancelled and moved
            • employment in the Canterbury region decreased by 26,800 (
              • New Zealand stock exchanged crashed by  340points.
                • $30billion damage
      • Ø  Part (size of 20 football fields) of the country’s longest glacier  was broken off creating a large iceberg as it hit Lake Tasman creating Tsunami waves
        • Ø  shifted land, created liquefaction, created large gaps in the ground etc. It ruined houses and farm land
          • Ø  Silt washed into local river beds, making it not possible for recreation sailing. 
    • RESPONSE
      • IMMEDIATE
        • Ø  In the seconds, hours and days after the earthquake rescue and response was offered by ordinary people as well as the emergency services on duty
          • The Canterbury Art Gallery ,which had been designed to be earthquake proof survived and, was turned into a Emergency Response centre
            • Ø  300 Australian police were flown in brining the number of the police to 1200
              • MAPPING OF CHRISTCHURCH
      • LONG TERM
        • The Red Cross provided grants to families with children under 5 years of age who were living in significantly damaged homes
          • $898 million in building claims
            • Ø  Roads and houses were cleared of silt from liquefaction by August and 80% of roads/50% of footpaths were repaired
              • Ø  Downtown, a temporary shopping centre in brightly coloured shipping containers. Called BOX PARK

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