Early Italian successes and failures

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  • Early Italian Success and failure
    • The Treaty of Bardo
      • May 12, 1881
      • After French had invaded Tunisia
      • Gave France responsibility for defense and foreign policy decision of Tunisia
        • Tunisia became a French protectorate
      • French excluded Italy from any of the negotiations
        • Italy had staked a claim to Tunisia
        • Showed their contempt for 'New Italy'
    • Italo-Turkish/Turco-Italian/"the Libyan war"
      • Fought between Ottoman Empire and Italy
      • Sept. 29th 1911 - Oct. 18th 1912
      • Minor
      • A precursor of WWI
        • Sparked nationalism in Balkan states
      • Italians easily defeated the Ottomans
        • encouraged balkans to attack empire before it was finished with Italy
      • Saw many technological advances in warfare
        • aeroplane
        • first ever aerial bomb
          • Oct. 23rd 1911
          • Italian pilot flew over Turkish lines and dropped it
    • The Triple Alliance
      • Between Italy, Germany and Austria-Hungary
      • Promised mutual support in event of an attack
        • For Italy - an attack by France or any 2 other great powers
      • Italy had to specify this was not against UK
    • Abyssina (the first Italo-Ethiopian War
      • Precoursor - Battle of Dogali (Jan 1887)
        • Ethiopian Emperor's governor attacked Italians day prior - 100s E's killed but only 4 Italians injured
        • 500 Is sent to Sahati to reinforce Italians
          • ambushed and all were killed
            • except for 80 injured who managed to escape
      • ended in crushing victory for Ethiopians
        • Battle of Adowa March 1896
          • Italians were concentrated and were defeated decisively
        • Italians totaled 20,000 troops with 56 artillery pieces
      • Ethiopians had 3000 dead and 6000 wounded
        • Italians had 9000-12000 dead
    • Transformism(o)
      • New Parliament Political parties were weak
        • principles and philosophy mattered little
        • Liberal politicians moved in and out of office regularly
          • Their response was to create large political coalitions
            • Often with bribes/favoures being offered
          • Givoanni Giolloti became known as master of this
            • PM on 5 separate occasions
    • Strikes and riots
      • Italy was not economically stable
        • There was illiteracy and poverty - particularly in South
          • 90% of Sicilian army recruits were rejected due to poor health
      • A number of risings in 1902
        • bloody peasant uprisings described as "normal"
      • 1890- I's french investment which aided economic growth was removed
        • unememployment spiralled
      • gov.t's response was to sanction Marshall Law in problem areas
        • Many were killed
        • King began to govern by royal decree
          • set a precendent for Fascism later


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