Research Methods

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  • Created by: EClou
  • Created on: 06-01-15 20:54
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  • Experimental Methods
    • Research Methods
      • Observation
        • Theory/Data
          • Hypothesis (a testable statement)
            • Test
      • Non-Experimental methods
        • Questionnaires
        • Interviews
          • Self-report techniques
            • Questionnaires
        • observations
        • Correlational Analyses
          • QICQOC
            • Qualitative methods (i.e. words or descriptions)
            • Interviews
              • Self-report techniques
              • observations
              • Case Studies
          • Case Studies
          • Qualitative methods (i.e. words or descriptions)
      • Laboratory
        • IV manipulated to observe effect on DV, EV controlled
        • E.g. Peterson and Peterson 1959
        • Positives
          • + high level control, high int. val. - CVs minimised
          • + Can draw Causal Concl. due to high int. val
          • + Easy replication checks reliability
        • Negatives
          • - Artificial - lacks eco. val.
          • - Ethical prob.
          • - investigator + ps effects e.g  dmnd. char.
      • Field
        • Exmntl. procedures in natural environment.
        • e.g. Bickman 1974
        • Positives
          • + improved eco. val.
          • + reduced ps effects - ps less aware
          • + Causal concl.
        • Negatives
          • less control of EV-lower Int. val.
          • lacks generalisability- less ext. val.
          • - Ethical prob.
      • Natural
        • aka Quasi-expt.
        • Exptr. uses naturally occurring diffs in IV - ps not randomly assigned (groups always vary uncontrollably) /researcher doesn't control IV
        • e.e Hodges and Tizard 1989 - institutional
        • Positives.
          • + allows research where mnpltn. of IV = inapt.
          • + less dmnd. char.
          • + real probs. can be studied
        • Negatives
          • - CVs- lacks int. val.
          • - therefore can't show causal concl.
            • - CVs- lacks int. val.
          • - Ethical
          • - must wait for situation to naturally occur
      • DEFINITIONS
        • Variable: any factor that can change
        • I V: the factor the experimenter changes (goes on X axis)
        • D V: factor measured by experimenter to discover effect of IV - the result
        • Extraneous Variable: any variable other than DV or IV
        • Experiment: systematically changing IV and measuring effect on DV (MUST HAVE AN IV)
        • Experimental control: IV manipulated - DV free to vary - all EVs controlled
        • Confounding Variable: uncontrolled EV

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