durkhiem functionalist theorie on crime and deviance

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  • durkhiem functionalist theorie on crime and deviance
    • how to acheive solidarity
      • socialisation
        • to instill the shared culture to it's members
        • helps to ensure individuals interalise the same values and norms and that they act correctlyand in the way that society requires
      • social control
        • rewards for conformity and punishments for deviance
        • helps to ensure people behave the way society expects
    • the inevitability of crime
      • every known society has some level of crime making it universal
      • two reasons why crime and deviance is found in all societies
        • not everyone is equally socialised so some will be more prone to deviance than others
        • diversity in life styles and values
        • subcultures develope their own distinctive norms and values which members of the subculture view as normal but people outside the subculture may find it deviant
          • diversity in life styles and values
      • durkhiem views in modern societies there is a tendency towards normlessness
        • rules governing behaviour become weaker and less clear cut
          • this is because modern societies have a complex specalised division of labour which leads individuals becoming increasingly different from one another
    • positive functions of crime
      • boundary maintenance
        • crime produces a reaction from society uniting its members in condemnation of the wrongdoer and reinforcing their commitment to the shared norms and values
        • durkhiem says that the punishment of the wrongdoer is to reinforce social solidarity adn soiteies shared rules
      • adaption and change
        • durkhiem says that all change starts with an act of deviancewith individuals and their new ideas values and ways of living
      • davis argues that prosititution acts as a saftey valve for the release of men's sexual frustration without threatening the monogamous nuclear family
      • cohen identidies that deviance is a warning that an insitution is not functioning properly
        • hihg rates of truancy may tell us that there are problems with the education system and that policy-makers need to make appropriate changes to it
    • for durkhiem neither a very high or very low level of crime are desiarble as they are both signals of a malfunctioning social system
      • too much crime
        • threatens to tear the bonds of society apart
      • too little crime
        • society is repressing and controlling its members too much stifling individual freedom and preventing change
    • criticisms
      • durkhiem says that society needs a certain amount of diviance but he doesn't indicate towards how much the optimum amount is
      • functionalism looks at what functions crime serves for the society as a whole but ignores how it might affect individuals
        • seeing a murder being punished for his crime might be functional in reinforcing the feeling of solidarity among the rest of society but it isn't functional for the victim


Faith Thompson

Useful info but crowded

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