Durkheim

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  • Durkheim
    • A founding father of sociology
      • Often referred to as 'Functionalism'
        • All aspects of social life perform a role in society through promoting stability or moral consensus
          • Social solidarity
            • Crime + punishment creates and sustains social solidarity and makes societies cohere
              • Distinguishes between pre-industrial societies (ancient past with little division of labour) to advanced societies (modern world where people perform specialised jobs)
                • In pre-industrial societies collective sentiments and social solidarity was based on religion
                  • Religion Criminality - Religion held societies together
                    • Crimes were seen as an offence against God
                • In advanced societies collective sentiments have changed to focus on humans
                  • Human Criminality - "the offence of man against man cannot arouse the same indignation as an offence of man against God"
              • Criminal acts create a collective hostile response e.g. punishment
                • It's good that we feel outraged; it draws us together
                • "Passion is the soul of punishment" it arouses a furious moral indignation of outrage
                  • Nietzsche argues punishment gratifies sadistic and cruel tendencies of humans
                    • "To witness suffering does one good. To inflict it, even more so"
            • Mead maintains there's a close relationship between punishment and social solidarity
              • BUT,this collective hostility towards criminals is harmful
                • "The spirals of rage emanating outwards from a heinous crime are traumatising rather than healing"
        • Untitled
    • Crime, law + punishment was a central focus
      • Social solidarity
        • Crime + punishment creates and sustains social solidarity and makes societies cohere
          • Distinguishes between pre-industrial societies (ancient past with little division of labour) to advanced societies (modern world where people perform specialised jobs)
            • In pre-industrial societies collective sentiments and social solidarity was based on religion
              • Religion Criminality - Religion held societies together
                • Crimes were seen as an offence against God
            • In advanced societies collective sentiments have changed to focus on humans
              • Human Criminality - "the offence of man against man cannot arouse the same indignation as an offence of man against God"
          • Criminal acts create a collective hostile response e.g. punishment
            • It's good that we feel outraged; it draws us together
            • "Passion is the soul of punishment" it arouses a furious moral indignation of outrage
              • Nietzsche argues punishment gratifies sadistic and cruel tendencies of humans
                • "To witness suffering does one good. To inflict it, even more so"
        • Mead maintains there's a close relationship between punishment and social solidarity
          • BUT,this collective hostility towards criminals is harmful
            • "The spirals of rage emanating outwards from a heinous crime are traumatising rather than healing"

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