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  • Duration
    • STM
      • can only hold several items for a limited amount of time due to decay or displacment
      • Peterson and Peterson 1959
        • laboratory experiment
          • participants presented with trigrams (three consonants)
            • they had to recall after an interval of 3,6,9.. untll they couldn't recall
              • in order to prevent rehearsal participants were given a distracted task (count back from 300 in threes)
          • memory trace disappeared roughly after 20 seconds
          • evaluation
            • IV under manipulation, shows clear cause and effect
            • lacks mundane realism, trigrams are artificial
            • loss of info could of been due to capacity, the interval task may of displaced the trigram
            • trigrams may of been effected by proactive interference (trigrams in previous trials)
      • factors affecting duration in STM
        • rehearsal, we can hold info in our heads eg when we look up phone numbers
        • amount of information- murdock
        • nature of words, unusual words are easier to recall
    • LTM
      • duration lasts for a lifetime
      • Bahrick et al. 1975
        • 392 graduates of an american high school
        • recognition group
          • shown a photo of all their class mates and given a group of names and asked to select the correct name
          • 90% correct after 14 years, 80% after 25 years, 75% after 34 years and 60% after 47 years
        • recall group
          • asked to name the names of the people in the photos
          • 60% after 7 years 20% after 47
        • evaluation
          • used meaningful stimulus material,can be related to everyday life, high ecological validity
          • not clear whether the drop off in accuracy is due to limits of duration or decline in memory with age
          • some participants may remember the classmates from previous trials (interference)
          • the people with a better memory by chance may of been put into the recognition group
          • high mundane realism, natural experiment
          • opportunities for people to strengthen the memory trace (have contact with classmates or look over photographs themself
        • conclusion: face and name recognition are rarely forgotten when recognition cues are given
      • factors affecting duration in LTM
        • people have a better long term recall when given cues to just being asked to recall
        • depth of learning
          • the memory is easier to recall is it was leant better, strong memory trace (regular rehearsal)
  • recall group
    • asked to name the names of the people in the photos
    • 60% after 7 years 20% after 47


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