Very detailed on pretty much everything you need to know on drugs for GCSE

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  • Drugs- Chemical substance that affects the way our body works (mood, perception)
    • TYPES
      • Depressant- Improves mood for a short period, slows down heart rate
        • Caffeine
        • Cocaine
      • Medicinal- treats illnesses
        • Calpol
        • Aprin
      • Recreational- For leisure
        • Heroin
        • Alcohol
        • Nicotine
        • Solvents
      • Stimulants- Boosts heart rate and other body functions
        • Caffeine
      • Anabolic steroids- stimulate muscle growth
        • Side effects
          • high blood pressure
          • liver failure
          • facial hair and deepening of voice in women
          • development of brests in men
        • Contains testosterone (male hormone)
        • FOR
          • More of a chance of winning
          • Bigger muscles
          • Have the right to take the drug or not
          • Have the right to take the risk or not
        • AGAINST
          • Unfair advantage
          • May not know health risks
      • 1. Tested on collection of human cells (cell cultures) grown in a lab(toxicity)
        • 2. Tested on animals (toxicity)
          • Tested in clinical trials with healthy human volunteers (toxicity and does) and patients (efficacy)
      • Clinical Trial- poor people volunteers to take part because they need the money. Group 1 gets the new drug, Group 2 gets a placebo
        • Carried out in LEDCs because it's cheaper and there are more people who need money
        • Low doses of drug are given out at the start, then further trials are carried out to find the dose
      • Control Group- one group is givin the new medicine. The other the existing cure for disease. Last for 3-5 years
        • Find out which medicine treats the diease the quickest and is the most effective
        • Done over a number of years to see the long term effects
      • Double Blind Trial- person who gives the drug  does not know which is which, neither do the patients
      • Placebo- dummy drug/ sugar pill
      • Valid-  testing what you set out to test, control other factors diet exercise etc
      • T- in the lab test for TOXICITY.  H- HEALTHY PEOPLE for side effects. P- PATIENTS for effectiveness D- DOSE to give
    • Thalidomide
      • Was tested and used as a sleeping pill
      • Discovered it worked for easing morning sickness, but it was not tested so babies were born with missing limbs
      • Now used for curing leprocy and cancer
    • Statins- used to reduce high cholesterol therefore reduce the risk of heart attacks/strokes
      • Advantages
        • Prevents 15,000 heart attacks and strokes every year
        • 8 fewer cases of oesophageal cancer
        • 271 fewer cases of heart disease
      • Disadvantages
        • side effects
        • expensive
        • does not extend life for long if you've had a previous stroke


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