Drug therapy

  • Created by: Mbegum
  • Created on: 29-12-18 11:23
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  • Drug Therapy
    • Assumptions
      • Medical model
        • mental illness = like physical illness
          • characterised by cluster of symptoms
            • treated via direct manipulation of bodily processes
      • Neurotransmitters
        • changes in brain NT's = affect emo + behav
          • psycho therapeutic drugs
      • Localisation of brain function
        • drugs target specific regions of brain
          • regions = invl in mental disorder
            • limbic system = regulated emotions
              • disturbed limbic system = affects mood + behav
    • Main components
      • Antipsychotic drugs
        • treat psychotics mental disorders e.g scz
          • psychotic patient = lost touch w/ reality
        • Typical APs
          • combat +ive symptoms of scz
        • Atypical APs
          • temp occupy dop receptors
            • rapidly dissociate = normal transmission
              • fewer side effects e.g tardive dyskinesia
      • Antidepressant drugs
        • depression = low serotonin
          • antidepressants = reduce rate of re-absorption
            • Or block enzyme breaking down NT
              • therefore increase serotonin
        • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
          • block transporter mechanism that reabsorbs serotonin
            • more serotonin in synapse = longer transmission
      • anti-anxiety drugs
        • benzodiazepines
          • slow down activity of CNS
            • enhance activity of GABA
              • GABA = body's natural form of anxiety relief
        • beta blockers
          • reduce activity of adrenaline + noradrenaline = body's response to stress
            • bind to receptors of cells stimluated during sympathetic arousal e.g heart
              • harder to stimulate cells
                • heart beats w/ less force + slower
                  • reduce blood pressure
                    • Person = less stressed + calmer
    • Effectiveness
      • Drugs VS Placebo
        • measure effectiveness of drug = via randomised control trial
          • Soomro et al
            • reviewed use of SSRIs for OCD
              • SSRIs = more effective VS placebo
                • reduce OCD symptoms upto 3 months
          • Kahn et al
            • 250 patients for 8 weeks
              • BZs s.f superior VS placebo
          • Koran et al
            • most studies are only 3/4 months
              • little long term data exists
      • Side Effects
        • many drugs have *** side effects
          • (Soomro et al)  nausea + headaches + insomnia
            • tricyclic antidepressants = irregular heartbeat
              • used when SSRI = ineffective
      • Symptoms not cause
        • drugs = effective in treating symptoms
          • doesn't address underlying cause
            • drugs = short term relief
              • long-term = revolving door syndrome
                • disorder never cured
      • Compared to other treatments
        • drugs = cheap (via NHS) + easy to administer
          • to monitor progress = less time invested by physician
            • more efficient VS psychotherapy
    • Ethical Issues
      • Patient information
        • lack of valid consent
          • patients = difficulty remembering side effects + facts of drug
            • valid consent = illusion
        • medical professions
          • withold or exaggerate info
            • fail to inform about alternatives
              • due to the quick fix nature of drugs
      • Use of placebos
        • no patient should be given treatment known to be inferior
          • instead of placebos = use effective treatment as control
            • however still exposes patient to inferior treatment = trial drug could be inferior
  • Typical APs
    • combat +ive symptoms of scz

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