Case study: Deficits in the Hydological cycle and the human influences

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  • Drought: Human Influences
    • Physical factors are most associated with drought
      • But human factors can exacerbate the impacts
      • Human factors do not cause drought
        • POSITIVE FEEDBACK LOOP
        • 1999 - 2000 Ethiopian/Eritrean drought and famine = 10 million people needing aid
          • The impacts of the drought were increased by socio economic conditions
            • Growing environmental degradation
              • Overgrazing
              • deforestation
            • Rural Poverty
            • The war that took place between these two countries lead to food shortages and aid blockages
    • The Sahel is a very arid region and contains some of the poorest developing countries
      • Burkina Faso, Sudan, Ethiopia
      • High variability of rainfall
        • Seasonally
          • Drought sensitive = Transitional climate zone
          • Normal conditions = mean annual rainfall is concentrated in the summer
            • 100mm - Very Arid
            • 800mm along southern margins
        • Annually
          • Year to year there is huge variability - Saharan Fringe
          • Warm sea surface temperatures in tropical seas favour strong convectional uplift over the ocean
            • Weaken the West African monsoon and contributes to Sahel Drought
        • Decadal anomalies
          • Relatively wet periods from 1900 to 1965
          • 1970 to 2011 on average very arid, low rainfall

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