Domestic Violence - Forms of Crime

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  • Domestic Violence
    • Definitions
      • Any indecent ot threatening behaviour, violence or abuse (physical , psychological, sexual , emotional or financial) between adults aged 18 or over who are or have been intimate parteners or family members regardless of gender or sexuality
        • Sandis 2006
      • not legally named domestic violence
        • falls under assualt , battery, ABH and GBH
      • Coercive behaviour
        • assault , threats and humiliation
        • 'an act or pattern of acts of assualt , threats humiliation and intimidation or other abuse that is used to harm, punish or frighten their victim
      • Defined by the victim offender relationship
      • broadened over the past few years
      • UK definitions
        • Family members include parents , children , sibling , in laws and stepfamily
      • controlling behavior
        • 'a range of acts designed to make a person subordinate and/or dependant by isolating them from sources of support , explioting their resources and capabilities for personal gain , depriving them of the means needed for independance , resistance and escape and regulating their everyday behaviour
      • 603 million women
        • live in countries where domestic violence is not a crime
      • Scotland and Wales
        • takes place in a certain setting
      • brother assaulting sister
        • not envisioned by the Specialist Domestic Violence Courts
          • interventions for the criminal behaviour
    • Terminology
      • wife battering
        • 1970's
      • ' a mans home is his castle'
      • ' home is where the heart is'
      • in history
        • Rule of Thumb
      • intimate terrorism
        • small part of all violence
      • violence resistance
      • situational couples violence
    • Prevelance
      • 2 women a week are killed (average)
      • CSEW 2012/3
        • 30% of women
          • 4.9 million
        • 16.3% men
          • 2.7 million
        • partner abuse 9 non-sexual  was most commonly experienced type of intimate violence, covered by the survey, among both men and women since the age of 16
        • twice as many women reported having such abuse since the age of 16
      • characteristics
        • physical
          • 93%
        • emotional
          • 98%
        • financial
          • 64%
        • sexual
          • 25%
    • Victims
      • men and women
        • young and old
      • all types of social class family circumstances and locality
        • Mirrlees-Black 1999
      • multiple victimisation
        • Yearnshire 1997-35x
      • during pregnancy
        • 30 %
          • look into the theroy of cuckoldry ?
      • children in the next room
        • 90%
      • 2012/13 CSEW
        • women
          • 16-19
            • 11.3%
          • 20-24
            • 12.5%
        • men
          • younger as opposed to older
            • 16-19
              • 7.5%
            • 20-24
              • 6.9%
        • women who were separated
        • long term illness or disability
        • women with degree LESS likely
    • battered womens syndrome
      • the victim loses the ability to see beyond the situation or any means of changing it
        • Elliot and Quinn2014 :163
      • loss of control
        • now partial defence to murder
          • gendered definition
            • Rv Alhluwalia
              • 1993
            • R v Thornton
              • 1992
      • Helena Kennedy for the Queen's Council
        • a snapping in slow motion
        • the final surrender of frayed elastic
    • Offenders
      • men and women
      • women killed and murdered by partner or ex
        • 51%
      • Home Ofiice 2003
        • Risk factors
          • witnessing DV in childhood
          • disruption of development patterns
          • high levels of interpersonal dependancy and jealously
          • attitudes towards DV
          • lack of empathy
      • 2 tyoes
        • borderline and emotionally dependant
        • antisocial and narcasssist
      • alcohol features of abuse
        • 62%
      • not all male
        • identified in lesbian couples
          • Renzetti
    • motivations and causes
      • dominance
      • fear and control
      • home office study 217 (2003)
        • alcohol
        • proximity
        • patriachy and misogyny in culture
        • cultural norms and expectations
        • general inequality
        • sanctity of family unit
      • 'male violence against women takes place in a sociocultural context:therefore, understanding that violence requires an understanding of how multiple levels of influences- from societal to individual- determine its expression. Such violence has deep roots in sociocultural constructions of gender and heterosexuality, constructions that promote male entitlement and social and political inequality for women. Cultural norms and myths, sexual scripts and social roles link various forms of violence and deny assistance to its victims'
        • Koss et al, 1994 16-17
    • Issues
      • homeless
      • children
      • risk of homicide greatest at point of leaving or seperation
      • physical and mental health
      • offending behaviour
      • measurement of cost
        • 15,730,000,000
          • walby,2009
      • victim blaming
        • why does't she or he leave report or prosecute
        • sanctity of marriage
        • home is private
        • money
        • cycle of violence
        • social problems
        • isolation
        • mental health issues
        • embarrased
        • love
        • children
        • belief in change
        • low self esteem
        • threats
        • belief in offenders claims
          • blame
          • worthless
    • responses
      • non victim centred investigation
      • extended definition
      • public awareness campaigns
      • refuges BUT mainly focused on women
      • specialist DV courts and magistrates
      • Domestic Violence Disclosure Scheme
      • Domestic Violence Protection Order Pilot March 2014
      • Specialist programmes focused on BME
      • council for Europe
      • United Nations
      • UK Government
        • 40 million until 2015
      • RESPECT

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