Domestic violence

  • Created by: Daisymac
  • Created on: 19-01-19 14:06
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  • Domestic violence
    • What?
      • Any incident or pattern of incidents of controlling,coercive or threatening behavior,violence or abuse between those aged 16 or over who are or have been intimate partners or family members regardless of gender or sexuality
      • Can include psychological,physical,sexual,financial and emotional violence or abuse
      • Domestic abuse is far too widespread to be simply the work of a few disturbed individual.
        • According to the Women's aid federation 2014, domestic violence accounts for between 1/6 or 1/4 of all recorded crime
      • Domestic violence does not occur randomly but follows particular social patterns and have social causes
        • EG. Coleman et al 2007 found that women were more likely than men were more likely than men to have experienced intimate violence across all types of abuse- Partner abuse, family abuse,sexual assault and stalking
      • Coleman and Osborne 2010 state 2 women and week are killed by their partner or a former partner
        • Confirmed by Russell and Dobashs 1979 and 07 research in Scotland based on police court records  and interviews with women .
      • Dobash and Dobash found that violent incidences could be set off by a wife challenging his authority, eg asking while he was late home. Also argue marriage legitimates violence
    • Gender gap
      • Crime survey for England and Wales 2013 found  a relatively narrow gap --> 7.3% women and 5% men
      • Walby and Allen 2004 found that women were much more likely to be victims of multiple incidences of abuse and sexual violence
      • Ansara and Hindin 2011 found that women suffered more severe violence and control, with more severe psychological effects
      • Dar 2013 points out that it can also be difficult to count separate domestic violence incidences as abuse may be continuous
    • Official statistics
      • Yearnshire 1997 found that on average a woman suffers 35 assaults before making a report
      • Dar argues that victims of domestic violence are less likely than other victims of other crimes to report the offence as they believe it is not a matter for the police
      • Cheal 1991 argues police are reluctant to record DV as the police are not prepared to become involved in the family as they believe that the family is :
        • A private sphere and so access to it by state should be limited
        • That the family is a good thing and so agencies neglect the dark side of it
        • That individuals are free agents so it is assumed that if a woman is experiencing domestic abuse, she can leave
    • Radical feminist Explanations
      • This emphasises the role of patriarchal ideas
      • Millett 1970 and Firestone 1970 argue that all societies have been founded on patriarchy.
      • See the family and marriage as the key institutions in patriarchal society and main source of women oppression.In the family, men dominate through domestic violence
      • Believe that the widespread domestic violence is an inevitable feature of a patriarchal society and serves to preserve the power of men
      • They have a sociological over psychological explanation which links domestic violence to dominant social norms about marriage
      • Elliot 1996 rejects the radical claim that men benefit fro violence against women as not all men are aggressive and most are opposed to domestic violence
      • Also fail to explain female violence, such as child abuse and violence against male partners
      • Wrongly assume that all women are equally at risk of patriarchal violence
      • Office for national statistics 2014 argue that women from some social groups are more likely to face domestic violence. > Young women, poor, shared accommodation, long term illness
    • Materialist explanation
      • Emphasises economic factors such as a lack of resources
      • Wilkinson and Pickett 2010 see domestic violence as the result of stress on family members caused by social inequality.
        • Those on low incomes or living in overcrowded accommodation are likely to experience higher levels of stress, and so reduces the chances of maintaining stable, caring relationships
        • Worries about jobs or money may spill over into domestic conflict as tempers become frayed
        • Lack of money an time restricts peoples social circle and reduces social support for those under stress
      • + useful in showing how social inequality produces stress and triggers conflict and violence
      • Does not explain why women are the main victims
      • Marxist feminists also see inequality as a main cause, Ansley 1972 argues that wives as 'takers of ****' and domestic violence is the product of capitalism-- Male workers are exploited at work and they take out their frustration on their wives

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