DNA protein ssynthesis

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  • DNA Protein synthesis
    • RNA
      • polymer made up of repeating mononucleotide subunits which forms a single strand.
        • Pentose sugar
        • one organis bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine or uracil
        • Phosphate group
      • the secquence of nucleotides on mRMA are known as the genttic code.
        • 3 nucleotide bases code for one amio acid (codon)
          • more than one codon codes for one amino adic, meaning it is degenerate
            • three codons do no code for any amino acids and are know as stop codons and mark the end of  a polypeptide chain.
      • mRNA
        • thousand of mononucleotides, long strand arranged in a sengle helix.
        • made when DNA copies one strand and forms a single complementary strand.
        • Leaves the nucleus via nuclear pores and associates with ribosomes in the cytoplasm, there is acts as a templte where protiens are built, as it contains correct secquences of the triplet organic bases
      • tRNA
        • small molecule made up of around 80 nucleotides
        • single stranded chain folded into a clover shape, with one end extending beyonf the other. thios is the amino acid attacthment site.
    • Transcription
      • DNA helicase acts on a specific area of DNA and breasks the hydrogen bonds between the paired organic bases, causing tthe two strands to seperate and exposing the nucleotide bases, this acts as the template strand,
      • an enzyme RNA polymerase moves along the template strand causing free bases to join to the complementary bases, the new strand formed is pre-mRNA


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