DNA

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  • DNA
    • what is it?
      • contains all genetic information for an individual
        • in every cell of the body expect red blood cells
      • two types of DNA
        • nuclear
        • mitochondrial
      • organised into 23 pairs of chromosome
      • male - xy
      • female - xx
      • 8 hours to get DNA profile
      • bp = basepair
      • STR = short tandem repeats
    • why?
      • identify suspect or victim
      • exclude individuals
      • evidence dependant
      • DNA databases
      • present at crime scene in many forms
      • statistics available
    • level of evidence
      • sub source
        • whos DNA is it?
      • source
        • what is the source of DNA?
      • activity
        • how did it get there?
          • be cautious
      • offence
        • is the action an offence?
          • do not state level of offence!
            • Example
              • be cautious
              • source
                • what is the source of DNA?
              • sub source
                • whos DNA is it?
              • sub source Joe Bloggs - source semen from high vaginal swab activity - sexual activity present
    • prior to DNA profiling
      • blood groups were used
        • type O, A, B and AB
        • limitations
          • litre of blood needed
          • discrimination difficult
          • bone marrow transplants
      • DNA fingerprinting
        • relies on probe designed to bind to the repetitive sequence
        • issues
          • long process
          • analysis time up to 8 weeks
          • complicated

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