DNA Structure

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  • DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid)
    • Individual nucleotidesof DNA are made up of three components
      • A sugar called 'deoxyribose'
      • A phosphate group
      • An organic base belonging to one of two different groups
        • Single-ring bases - CYTOSINE (C) and THYMINE (T)
        • Double-ring bases - ADENINE (A) and GUANINE (G)
    • The DNA molecule is combined with proteins. Then DNA-protein complex is coiled to form loops. Later on loops are coiled and packed together to form the chromosome.
      • Prokaryotic cells have smaller DNA which is also circular. It does not have chromosomes and is not associated with proteins.
      • However the eukaryotic cells DNA molecule is large and linear. It is associated with proteins and does have chromosomes.
      • Also alot of this DNA does not code for polypeptides.
    • DNA does have specific base paring. This is ADENINE & THYMINE (2 hydrogen bond). CYTOSINE & GUANINE (3 hydrogen bonds).
  • Function of DNA
    • Gene - is a section of DNA that codes for one polypeptide (protein)
    • Locus - is the specific location of a gene or DNA sequence or position on a chromosome.
    • Triplet code
      • This means that every 3 bases in DNA codes for one particular amino acid.
      • The code is also non-overlaping. so one amino acid consist of three bases of DNA. then next amino acid consist of three next bases.


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