DNA and RNA

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  • Created by: rhiglynn
  • Created on: 01-03-16 12:02
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  • DNA and RNA
    • DNA and RNA are nucleic acids, that are found in all living cells which both carry information.
      • DNA is used to store genetic information- which an organism needs to grow and develop
      • RNA is similar to DNA in structure. One of its main functions is to transfer genetic information from the DNA to the ribosomes.
        • Ribosomes are the body's 'protein factories'- they read the RNA to make polypeptides in a process called translation
        • RNA themselves are made from RNA and proteins
    • Both RNA and DNA are polymers of nucleotides.
      • The sugar in DNA is called deoxyribose
        • Four possible bases, Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine and Guanine.
      • The sugar in RNA is called ribose
        • Four possible bases Adenine, Uracil, Cytosine and Guanine
    • Nucleotides join together to form polynucleotides
      • The bond between the phosphate group and the sugar is called phosphodiester bond
        • Formed by a condensation reaction
      • The chain of sugars is known as the sugar-phosphate backbone
    • DNA is made up of two polynucleotide chains in a double helix structure.
      • Two DNA polynucleotides join together by hydrogen bonding between the bases.
        • Two hydrogen bonds form between A and T and three form between C and G
      • RNA is made from a single polynucleotidechainn ajd
  • First observed in the 1800's but doubted due to its simplicity. Argued information should be carried by proteins which are more chemically varied
    • By 1953, experiments proved that DNA was the carrier of genetic materials. This was the same year that the double-helix structure was determined by Crick and Watson

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