DNA AND CELL DIVISION

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  • Created by: geogt002
  • Created on: 31-05-16 16:21
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  • DNA AND CELL DIVISION
    • Chromosomes are made from DNA.
    • genes are short sections of DNA.
    • mitosis- a type of cell division that creates genetically identical cells.
    • sexual reproduction- when a male gamete fuses with a female gamete to produce a new cell. It is called fertilisation.
    • gametes produced by meiosis ( another type of cell division). Gametes contain  a single set of chromosomes, whereas body cells contain 2 sets.
    • DNA
      • Molecules are large and complex. they carry a genetic code that determines the genetic characteristics of a living thing.
      • apart from twins everyone's DNA  is  unique. This is why people can be identified using DNA fingerprinting.
    • genes
      • A short section of DNA. each gene codes for a specific protein by specifying the order in which amino acids must be joined together.
    • Chromosomes
      • found in a cells nucleus.. made from long DNA molecules. contain cells genetic information. usually found in pairs.
    • MITOsis
      • the process in which body cells divide.
      • the genetic material is copied.
      • the cell divides once to from 2 genetically identical body cells.
      • occurs during growth or to prodcue replacement cells.
    • gametes
      • cells in the reproductive organs (testes/sperm and ovaries/eggs) divide to form gametes. they are sex cells
      • they contain 1 set of genetic information but body cells contain 2. meiosis produces them.
    • fertilisation
      • the joining/ fusion of male and female gametes.. when it happens a single body cell with new pairs of chromosomes are formed. the new cell then divides and divides by mitosis. this eventually forms a new individual.
    • differntiation
      • when cells become specilised for a  particular function. cannot chnage into different types. in animals it is uuslally for replacemnt and repair.
    • stem cells
      • to form different types of cell. e.g. nerve cells.
      • humans: come from embryo and bone marrow.
    • stem cell treat ment.
      • potential to be used to treat parkinson's and and paralysis. but there are social and ethical issues concerning this.

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